The current hypothesis is that S21+ is an early mutation within R1b that was geographically European in localization. In more recent times in Britain it represents an “invader” origin, specifically in post Roman times it is most likely associated with Angles, Saxons, Jutes and maybe Normans. S21 has been geographically associated with the so-called “Frisian” R1b STR cluster. L1 appears to be somewhat different from that STR cluster. However, it shares characteristics with its distribution within Britain. Its age and diversity (predating the Anglosaxon invasions) also suggest that it has originated from a larger population that has yet been unsampled or only poorly sampled from Europe. On a speculative note it may indicate French or Norman origins as distinct from Northern European.
The distinguished surname Azzolina originated in an area of Italy, known as the Papal States. Although people were originally known only by a single name, it became necessary for people to adapt a second name to identify themselves as populations grew and travel became more frequent. The process of adopting fixed hereditary surnames was not complete until the modern era, but the use of hereditary family names in Italy began in the 10th and 11th centuries. Italian hereditary surnames were developed according to fairly general principles and they are characterized by a profusion of derivatives coined from given names. The most traditional type of family name found in the region of the Papal States is the patronymic surname, which is derived from the father's given name. During the Middle Ages, Italians adopted the patronymic system of name-making because it perfectly complemented the prevailing feudal system. In Italy the popularity of patronymic type of surname is also due to the fact that during the Christian era, people often named their children after saints and biblical figures. The surname Azzolina came from the personal name "Azzo."

The surname Merlo is a habitational place-name, which is a type of hereditary surname, and is derived from the name of the place in which the first bearer lived. Merlo is derived from is Morlaix, in Brittany (English), a peninsula in the northwest of France. Formerly known as Armorica, a possession of the Roman Empire, this land consists of a plateau with a deeply indented coast and is broken by hills in the west.

First found in Cheshire where they were seated from very early times and were granted lands by Duke William of Normandy, their liege Lord, for their distinguished assistance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D.

The surname Aliberti came from Alberto which is formed from the words "ala," which means "everything," and "bertha," which means "famous." Thus the name means one who is famous in everything.

Letizia - First found in Ferrara a city in Emilia capital of the province of Ferrara.

Zengerle - Zingali - First found in Saxony, where this family name became a prominent contributor to the development of the district from ancient times.

Azzo - Azzolina - ATHANARIC - athala:
Azzo - Azzolina - ATHANARIC - athala:

From the Gothic name Athanareiks, derived from the Germanic element athana possibly meaning "year" (or possibly a derivative of athala "noble") combined with ric meaning "power, ruler". Athanaric was a 4th-century ruler of the Visigoths.

Azzolina: Drift from a Germanic name
The first human settlements in the territory of Grottazzolina date back to the 8th century b. C., as the archaeological discoveries, carried out between 1948 and 1953, have testified. These first discoveries have brought to light more than 50 tombs and numerous findings and they were located in Montebello, near the present sporting grounds and the former railway station, where the School of Piane di Tenna is. Around the half of the 10th century, the Farfense monks have erected the castle: the first inhabited core of the town which they named Montebello; later on, the Canons of the Cathedral of Fermo modified the name of the castle in Grotta dei Canonici (the Cavern of the Canons). In 1208, the Emperor Ottone IV conceded to Azzo d’Este the Marca of Ancona. At his death in 1217, the possession of the Marca was confirmed by Pope Onorio III to his son Azzo VII (named also Azzolino) who baptised the castle with the name of Grotta Azzolina, as it is called today. Since the 14th century, Grottazzolina has been under the dominance of the town of Fermo, which was reigned, since the end of the 12th century, by a freely elected government in the Papal State. In 1407, an army composed of 1,000 foot soldiers and 1,500 horsemen by order of Benedetto, bishop of Montefeltro, occupied the county of Fermo to chase away Ludovico Migliorati, lord of the town and nephew of Pope Innocenzo VII; in 1413, 1422 and 1444 the same happened to chase away, respectively, Carlo Malatesta from Cesena, the mercenaries of Braccio Perugino and, finally, Niccolò Piccinino.
In 1465, after a period of quietness, due to futile reasons there exploded a controversy with the citizens of Ponzano and Montegiberto. Peace was, later on, restored by the senate of Fermo and Grottazzolina was fortified by the lord of Fermo Oliverotto Uffreducci, who established there a foundry of canons one year before being strangled by order of Cesare Borgia. In 1514, another member of the Uffreducci family came back to Fermo: Lodovico, nephew of Oliverotto. Initially, he was protected by Pope Leone X but was, later on, opposed by the same Pope who, in 1520, sent against him Niccolò Bonafede, bishop of Chiusi; he defeated and killed Lodovico Uffreducci in the locality of Piane di Grottazzolina. The town of Grottazzolina took the status of free town, for the first time, in 1537 when Pier Luigi Farnese, by order of Pope Paolo III, occupied and fined the town of Fermo, depriving it of every right. After ten years of tranquillity, the town came back, once again by order of the Pope, under the jurisdiction of the barons of Fermo, which unjustly put to the near Castles the fine of 25,000 scudi. This was not the only act of vexation perpetuated by the government of Fermo until the 18th century; incessant fights, discordance and protests to the State of the Pope brought no improvement. These were no longer times of war and the controversies were exposed to the Supreme Courts of Rome, which were always on the side of Fermo, sentencing in 1771 and 1782. From the 17th century, Grottazzolina was governed, together with 47 castles, by podestà and vicars belonging to the town of Fermo. Around the period between 1810 and 1815, there was a project to annexe the town of Grottazzolina to the territory of Fermo, to compensate this last one of its loss of the harbour, which counted, at that time, more than 5,000 inhabitants. After the battle of Castelfidardo, Grottazzolina entered the Kingdom of Italy and from December 1860, when King Vittorio Emanuele II took away the status of Province from Fermo to give it to Ascoli Piceno, Grottazzolina became an autonomous town.

The present of the town is characterised by an imposing development of the handicraft and small companies. Grottazzolina is above all a town which is worth a visit, for its human, historical and cultural resources. The Castle of Azzolino, pride and testimony of the historical vitality of the town, rises at the centre of it. The Cozzana, the oldest district of the town, recently restored, embraces the eastern side of the Umberto I square. The former Benedetti Hospital, completely restored, will host the social and cultural activities of the town. The Ermete Novelli Theatre, featuring Art Nouveau and more than 250 seating places, hosts every year an important theatre season with the most important national theatre companies. The Town Hall features, instead, a Renaissance style and a very interesting tower with battlements.
The Church of St Sacramento and St Rosario (1768) features a Classic facade and houses frescoes, paintings and sculptures. The Church of St Giovanni Battista (1684) was reconstructed on a pre-existent Romanesque church. These are the resources which make Grottazzolina worth a visit. A visit that can be enriched by the 21st Marathon of the Piceno, which will take place this year as usual and is one of the most important Italian sport meetings and also an occasion to enjoy the beauty of the Piceno region.

Inside the walls, disappeared together with the Town Hall, there are traces of the ancient Palace Azzolino.

Deriva da un nome germanico, può essere un'abbreviazione di un nome formato dalla radice athala, nobiltà, o, in qualche caso da atta, padre. Le forme Azio e Azia possono anche continuare i nomi latini Atius e Attius. La forma Azzolino può derivare dal nome Ezzelino, così lo chiama Dante Alighieri (vedere gli Ezzelini) . Il nome Azio potrebbe inoltre derivare dal latino axio e significare gufo.


Drift from a Germanic name, can be an abbreviation of a name formed from the root athala, nobility, or, in some case from apt, father. The shapes Azio and Azia can also continue the Latin names Atius and Attius. The Azzolino shape can derive from the Ezzelino name, therefore calls Dante Alighieri (to see the Ezzelini to it). The Azio name could moreover derive from the Latin axio and mean gufo.

Azzo Azzolina
Invasion and conquest of Italy

In 560 a new, energetic king emerged: Alboin, who defeated the neighbouring Gepidae, made them his subjects, and, in 566, married the daughter of their king Cunimond, Rosamund. In the spring of 568, Alboin led the Lombards, together with other Germanic tribes; (Bavarians, Gepidae, Saxons) and Bulgars, across the Julian Alps with a population of around 400,000 to 500,000, to invade northern Italy. The first important city to fall was Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli), in northeastern Italy, in 569. There, Alboin created the first Lombard duchy, which he entrusted to his nephew Gisulf. Soon Vicenza, Verona, and Brescia fell into Germanic hands. In the summer of 569, the Lombards conquered the main Roman centre of northern Italy, Milan. The area was then recovering from the terrible Gothic Wars, and the small Byzantine army left for its defence could do almost nothing. The Exarch sent to Italy by Emperor Justinian II, Longinus, could defend only coastal cities that could be supplied by the powerful Byzantine fleet. Pavia fell after a siege of three years, in 572, becoming the first capital city of the new Lombard kingdom of Italy. In the following years, the Lombards penetrated further south, conquering Tuscany and establishing two duchies, Spoleto and Benevento under Zotto, which soon became semi-independent and even outlasted the northern kingdom, surviving well into the 12th century. The Byzantines managed to retain control of the area of Ravenna and Rome, linked by a thin corridor running through Perugia.
Lombardic migration.
Lombardic migration.

When they entered Italy, some Lombards were and remained pagan, while some were Arian Christians. Hence they did not enjoy good relations with the Catholic Church. Gradually, they adopted Roman titles, names, and traditions, and partially converted to orthodoxy (7th century), not without a long series of religious and ethnic conflicts.

The whole Lombard territory was divided into 36 duchies, whose leaders settled in the main cities. The king ruled over them and administered the land through emissaries called gastaldi. This subdivision, however, together with the independent indocility of the duchies, deprived the kingdom of unity, making it weak even when compared to the Byzantines, especially after they began to recover from the initial invasion. This weakness became even more evident when the Lombards had to face the increasing power of the Franks. In response to this problem, the kings tried to centralize power over time; but they lost control over Spoleto and Benevento definitively in the attempt.

The Franks or the Frankish peoples were an ever-changing confederation of west Germanic tribes, such as the Salians, Sicambri, Chamavi, Tencteri, Chattuarii, Bructeri, Usipetes, Ampsivarii. The Salians, later preeminent among the tribes, were a "proto-Dutch" (Low Franconian) speaking people. The Franks first appeared in history around 260. Sometimes they allied with non-Old Frankish speaking tribes as the Frisians and Chatti and occasionally with Saxons. They were not originally grouped into one tribe, but "as with the other barbarians, they belonged to much smaller groups that would join constantly changing confederations."[1]

Most of those peoples were living at the northern borders of the Rhine in, and opposite to the Insula Batavorum in a region then called "Francia" in the Panegyrici Latini. They formed a constant pressure on the Roman borders but also took active service in the Roman army, climbing up the ranks to dominating positions, such as at the time of Arbogastes. They slowly replaced the Batavians in their native domains and according to Ammianus Marcellinus expanded their territory on Roman soil to the delta of the Scheldt, where the Salians blocked grain supplies for the Roman Army. With later invasions of the Salians Chlodio and Childeric they moved up the Scheldt and homed around Tournai, from where those Salians finally conquered the Roman army, that was supported by other Franks.

The Merovingian family of Childeric united all Franks in Gaul and slowly expanded their influence to other territories until a new dynasty called the Carolingians took over and conquered a major part of western Europe. The location of Francia moved with the Franks untill finally around the year 1000 it became to be known as France.

The Frankish Empire, Frankish Kingdom (Latin: regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the Franks"), or Frankish Realm (German: Frankenreich), often just Francia or Frankia and rarely even Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the 5th to the 10th century. The Franks were a Germanic people, almost unique in that they converted to the Roman Catholicism instead of the Arianism typical of other Germanic peoples.

The various Frankish kingdoms were united by Clovis I (481–511). The kingdom was repeatedly divided among several kings; the division of 843 after the death of Louis the Pious turned out to be permanent. The resulting Western and Eastern Kingdoms eventually developed into the nations of France and Germany respectively.

Since the term "empire" properly applies only to times after the coronation of Charlemagne as imperator in 800, and since the unified kingdom was repeatedly split and reunited, most historians prefer to refer to "Frankish kingdoms" or the "Frankish realm."

"House of Este"

# Azzo VIII d'Este
# Azzo X d'Este
# Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan

The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. It is split into two branches: the elder branch is known as the House of Welf-Este or House of Welf, and the younger branch as the House of Fulc-Este or later simply as the House of Este.

The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century.

Azzo Azzolina

U5: The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U5, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Haplogroup U5a1—a lineage within haplogroup U5—arose in Europe approximately 30,000 years ago, and is mainly found in northwest Europe. In the context of its rather ancient origin, the modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1 suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe. Bryan Sykes in his Seven Daughters of Eve book named this mtDNA haplogroup Ursula.

Brian Hamman's Clan Ursula (U5 sub-group) Website

Haplogroup R1b

R1b (or R1b1c in the ISOGG nomenclature) is the most commonly observed haplogroup in individuals of European descent. It reaches a frequency of over 90% in parts of Iberia and Western Ireland and decreases eastward towards the Near East, although is present in parts of Central Asia. R1b is considered a marker of Palaeolithic European hunter-gatherer ancestry.


NORWAY > 30%




BASQUE > 89%

Phenotypes found in my family:


Green Eye Variations (found in R1b members)

Green eyes are rarer than brown, hazel, blue and gray eyes. Green eyes are most often found in people of Celtic, Germanic, and Slavic descent. Hungarians have the highest percentage of green eyes of any population, close to 20%.

Blue Eye Variations (found in U5a1a and R1b members)

Finland and Lithuania have the highest percentages of blue-eyed people, with at least 80% in both countries respectively. Ireland and Great Britain also have high percentages of blue eyes, with estimates for being around 70% for Ireland and about 65% for Britain.

Hazel Eye Variations (found in U5a1a members)

Hazel is usually used to describe eyes that contain elements of both green eyes and brown eyes, in rare cases, also containing gray or blue, sometimes transitioning from green at the edges to brown around the pupil, and light brown. Hazel eyes often change color depending on what the person is wearing (i.e. if the person is wearing green or purple, the eyes appear mostly green). They are commonly found in middle European countries such as the middle of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, south and middle of Poland, south and middle of Germany, north of France, Switzerland, north of Italy,Turkey, Slovenia and others.


Blonde Hair: (found in U5a1a and R1b members)

Brown Hair: (found in U5a1a and R1b members)

Black Hair: (found in U5a1a members)

Skin Tones:

White - non-pigmented / fair / red tan: (found in U5a1a members)
White - pigmented / brown tan: (found in U5a1a and R1b members)

YSNP Verified
Y-STR Data



Back-Migration from Europe

Recent back-migration can be estimated by an examination of the presence, in the Near East, of clusters that are most likely to have evolved within Europe. Haplogroup U5 is very ancient (∼50,000 years old) in both Europe and the Near East, but it occurs more sporadically in the Near East and is absent from Arabia. In the Near East, it is largely restricted to peripheral populations (Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, or Egyptians): only three individuals from the core Near Eastern regions (namely, the Fertile Crescent and Arabia) harbor U5 sequence types; of these, one is the root sequence type, whereas the other two are members of the highly derived subcluster U5a1a (for the nomenclature for U5, seetable 2). Overall, 8 of 22 Near Eastern U5 types are members of this highly derived subcluster, and an additional 6 are members of the next-most-derived subcluster, U5a1*. There are four members of U5b, one member of U5a*, and only three members of U5*. Moreover, these Near Eastern types are frequently derivatives of European intermediate types: one Egyptian type is derived from a Basque type, and many Armenian and Azeri types are derived from European and northern-Caucasian types. Therefore, whereas the U5 root sequence type (16270) could conceivably have originated in the Near East and have spread to Europe ∼50,000 YBP, with recurrent back-migration ever since, a European origin for the U5 cluster seems just as probable. In either case, the U5 cluster itself would have evolved essentially in Europe. U5 lineages, although rare elsewhere in the Near East, are especially concentrated in the Kurds, Armenians, and Azeris. This may be a hint of a partial European ancestry for these populations—not entirely unexpected on historical and linguistic grounds—but may simply reflect their proximity to the Caucasus and the steppes. Of the Near Eastern lineages, 1.8% (95% CR = .012–.027) are members of U5, in contrast to 9.1% (95% CR = .081–.103) in Europe; in the core region of Syria-Palestine through Iraq, the proportion falls to 0.5% (95% CR = .002–.015). Overall, this suggests the presence of as much as 20% of back-migrated mtDNA in the Near East but only ∼6% in the core region.

It seems likely that haplogroup V also originated within Europe and subsequently spread eastward (Torroni et al. 1998), although its lower diversity provides less opportunity to differentiate lineages by their ages. A slightly lower figure for back-migration is obtained when V is used: 0.5% (95% CR = .002–.011) of samples in the Near East (in Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Syria) versus 4.6% (95% CR = .039–.054) in Europe, suggesting a value of ∼11% back-migrants overall. Again, two-thirds of these back-migrants are in either Turkey or the southern Caucasus, which reduces the estimate for the core region to ∼8%. Given the small sample sizes involved and the resulting uncertainties in the estimates, these values are in good agreement with the figure estimated when U5 is used, especially since haplogroup V is both rarer in eastern Europe (whence much of the back-migration is likely to have originated) than in western Europe (Torroni et al. 1998) and of more recent origin than U5. Hence, the scale of back-migration is considerable. It needs to be taken into account as a major factor in the founder analysis and also suggests that it will be worthwhile to compare a founder analysis based only on the core regions versus a founder analysis based on the Near Eastern data as a whole.

A man named Kaggi: the Danish name for Redbeard.

Frederick II of Swabia, called Redbeard.


Nearly all present-day Europeans with the M343 marker also have the P25 and M269 markers. These markers define the R1b1c subclade.

This subgroup probably originated in Central Asia/South Central Siberia and appears to have entered prehistoric Europe mainly from the area of Ukraine/Belarus or Central Asia (Kazakhstan) via the coasts of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. It is believed by many to have been widespread in Europe before the last Ice Age, and associated with the Aurignacian culture (32,000 - 21,000 BC) of the Cro-Magnon people, the first modern humans to enter Europe. The Cro-Magnons were the first documented human artists, making sophisticated cave paintings. Famous sites include Lascaux in France, Cueva de las Monedas in Spain and Valley of Foz Côa in Portugal (the largest open-air site in Europe).
European LGM refuges, 20 kya.
European LGM refuges, 20 kya.

The glaciation of the ice age intensified, and the continent became increasingly uninhabitable. The genetic diversity narrowed through founder effects and population bottlenecks, as the population became limited to a few coastal refugia in Southern Europe and Asia Minor. The present-day population of R1b in Western Europe are believed to be the descendants of a refugium in the Iberian peninsula (Portugal and Spain), where the R1b1c haplogroup may have achieved genetic homogeneity. As conditions eased with the Allerød Oscillation in about 12,000 BC, descendants of this group migrated and eventually recolonised all of Western Europe, leading to the dominant position of R1b in variant degrees from Iberia to Scandinavia, so evident in haplogroup maps.

An alternative belief is that R1b represents the Western or centum-speaking branch of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, although this remains uncertain.

A second R1b1c population, reflected in a somewhat different distribution of haplotypes of the more rapidly varying Y-STR markers, appear to have survived alongside other haplogroups in Asia Minor, from where they spread out to repopulate Eastern Europe. However, they do not have the same dominance that R1b has in Western Europe. Instead the most common haplogroup in Eastern Europe is haplogroup R1a1, often thought to be associated with a subsequent migration of Indo-Europeans (or perhaps their ancestors) from the East.

Note that haplogroup R1b and haplogroup R1a first existed at very different times. The mutations that characterize haplogroup R1b occurred ~30,000 years bp, whereas the mutations that characterize haplogroup R1a occurred ~10,000 years bp.

(Note that in earlier literature the M269 marker, rather than M343, was used to define the R1b haplogroup. Then, for a time (from 2003 to 2005) what is now R1b1c was designated R1b3. This shows how nomenclature can evolve as new markers are discovered and then investigated).

To date the most commonly reported clade is R1b1c*. This implies that the individual is negative (ancestral) for all known subclade markers. R1b1c* is found at highest frequency in Iberia and Ireland with a decreasing cline to the east where the R1b subclade markers S21 and S28 are seen at increasingly higher frequency (beginning in Holland and Eastern France respectively). Until new subclade markers emerge, the most parsimonious interpretation is that R1b1c* reflects Paleolithic hunter - gatherer populations that overwintered in the Franco - Cantabrian Refugium during the last Ice Ages and, while largely remaining in the immediate area, did fan out as far a Central Europe. At this point the only option to obtain information on geographic and possibly tribal data for R1b1c* is to employ haplotype analysis of the Y-STR (short tandem repeat) markers. Various groupings have been identified such as "Southwest Irish" and "Scots (Pictish)" but the modal values for these are no longer available in one spot on the Internet. The clustering analysis of Dr. John McEwan [1]is an excellent starting point. Beyond this, further parsing of R1b1c* into subclades will be dependent on the success of commercial testing companies or academic researchers in locating new Y-SNPs.

The subclades R1b1c4 (M153) and R1b1c6 (SRY2627 (M167)) have been found to be typical of the Basque people; these subclades are only rarely found among Spaniards from other parts of Spain and are found sporadically among other European populations, which at one time was thought to indicate some sort of founder effect or genetic drift among a rather genetically isolated population of proto-Basques. Commercial testing has shown M167 to occur in Southwest England and Ireland, and to a lesser extent in Scotland. This haplogroup has also been reported from France (although a sampling bias may be at "fault" since relatively few French samples have been tested), and as far east as Germany. One problem that is critical to the understanding of the origin of R1b in Europe but which has been overlooked by popularizers of various theories is that the R1b frequency peak found in the Basque Country, Pyrenees, and southwestern France actually overlaps a zone of extremely decreased diversity of R1b-associated STR haplotypes.

The subclade R1b1c7 (M222), on the other hand, is associated with the Irish and Scots; in this case, the relatively high frequency of this specific subclade among the population of certain counties in northwestern Ireland may be due to positive social selection, as R1b1c7-M222 is believed to have been the Y-chromosome haplogroup of the kings of the Uí Néill clan of ancient Ireland.

The R1b1c9 (S21) subclade, although recently discovered by EthnoAncestry, appears to be the most common downstream marker from R1b1c appearing in over 35% of those tested. It appears that this group has a maximum in Northern Germany and is the predominant R1b haplogroup in Scandinavia. [2] The exact technical definition of the SNP was not initially released for commercial reasons, but the same marker was subsequently independently identified (as their "U106") by Sims et al (2007) [3].

The R1b1c9a subclade is defined by the S26 SNP, and occurs in less than a half a percent of R1b males. S26 is located in the flanking region of DYS439. When it occurs, it inhibits the FTDNA primers from binding, thus producing an apparent null allele or "null 439". For further information, see [4]. The other marker downstream from S21 is S29 which defines R1b1c9b, which was also discovered by EthnoAncestry, and has to date been found primarily in England (although this may reflect a sampling bias). Recent findings show that it also occurs in Germany in the region previously inhabited by the Saxons. Further studies will serve to ascertain whether this is a native Briton marker, or Continenetal and having arrived in England with the Anglo - Saxons in the 5th Century.

The R1b1c10 (S28) subclade's discovery was announced in 2005 by EthnoAncestry. Although sample sizes are relatively small, it appears to reach a maximum in Alpine Germany and Switzerland. Ethnoancestry's commercial and research branches have shown that S28 is found from Greece westward to the Bay of Biscay in France. It appears to follow the distribution of the La Tene Celtic peoples. One branch appears to have moved north to Jutland (as the Cimbri / Teutones nation / tribe) and southeastern Norway possibly during the Bronze Age. To date all findings in Britain are only from locations known to be settled by the Norse (e.g., Orkney) and Danes (e.g., English Danelaw) probably during Viking times. The percentages here are much less than found in the Alps. It has yet to be found anywhere in Ireland or Spain. Northern Italy seems to be a meeting place for both S21 and S28. Like S21, S28's specifications were not initially officially published by EthnoAncestry; but again the marker was subsequently identified independently (as their "U152") by Sims et al (2007). [5]

The newest Y-SNP to surface is S68, which was reported by EthnoAncestry in 2007. It was originally considered to be what was once refered to as a "private SNP" and by EthnoAncestry as a "Family SNP", but was recently seen in someone from another part of Europe, and with a different surname. It is only with continued research that the time depth of these markers can be estimated. At present S68 has been seen in an individual from Scotland and another from Sweden. EthnoAncestry has determined that this subclade (tentatively identified as R1b1c11) is unlikely to be found in much more than 2% of the R1b population.

EthnoAncestry has embarked on a research program to systematically study the distribution of R1b1c9 and R1b1c10 across Europe. For example, preliminary work with samples from England, Wales, Norway and Friesland (Holland) is complete; ongoing work includes large samples from Italy and Spain; and plans are well underway to sample every country in Europe.

Niall of the Nine Hostages

In 2006, a subgroup of R1b common among people of Irish patrilineal descent was identified as the probable haplotype of many within the septs associated with Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish king in the Dark Ages. SNP testing has shown that the cluster of haplotypes purported to be associated with the patrilineal descendants of the Uí Néill clan displays the M222 mutation that defines Haplogroup R1b1c7.

Members of the Saami Parliament

The Saami
An ancient population on the northern edge of Europe


Indigenous people

Saami (Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and Siberia).

Basques (Northern Spain and Southern France)

Frisians (Netherlands, Germany)

Celts (United Kingdom{Scotland, Wales, Cornwall}/Ireland/Isle of Man/Brittany)

Sami, an ancient people of North Eureasia

Saami_family_1900w The Sami people of Sápmi are considered to be an ancient indigenous people in parts of Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Until the 20th century, these people led a hunter-gather lifestyle, and they herded reindeer and tended sheep (picture with this post is from about 1900 AD). Their language is not part of the Indo-European family of languages, but is part of the Finno-Ugric language family that includes Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian. There are closely related Finnic languages including Udmurt, Mari and Komi spoken in and around the Volga and Kama rivers to the west of the Ural mountains.

There are archaeological sites indicating human habitation in northern Sweden by at least 6,000 BC, early after the last glaciation. One school of thought holds people repopulated this part of the world along a North Atlantic sea route to the northern coast of Norway as this area became habitable. As inland ice receded, people moved inland and southward. Other routes are possible as well.

Some DNA studies confirm the Sami as part of the many peoples of Europe, with some suggestions that some Sami may have a genetic contribution from further east in Asia. Some 56.8 percent of the Norwegian Sami belong in U5b1b1 mtDNA subclade and 33.1 percent belong to mtDNA haplogroup V. The Finnish Sami mtDNA is 40.6 percent U5b1b1 and 37.7 percent in haplogroup V, plus a smattering of other haplogroups. Haplogroup V is found across other parts of Europe at frequencies less than 5 percent, except on the Iberian peninsula. This suggests the Sami are mostly of European extraction. The authors did find some individuals with haplogroup Z mtDNA and these sequences are closely related to some populations in the Volga-Ural region of Russia. Arguments are made that haplogroup Z entered the Sami gene pool about 2,700 years ago from the Volga-Urals.

Reference: Ingman, M. & Gyllensten, U., A recent genetic link between Sami and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 September 2006; doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201712

Saxons, Vikings, and Celts

Bryan Sykes has written another very interesting book on genetic genealogy, specifically the origins of the peoples of Ireland, Scotland and England. I read this book in its slightly earlier release in the UK under the title Blood of the Isles.

Sykes explores the founding myths of the peoples he studies and tries to separate things that can be substantiated by genetics and other means from those parts of the myths that most probably fanciful embellishments.

Sykes seeks to explain the current demography of the isles in terms of the genetic contributions of the Celts, the Scandinavians and the Germanic Anglo-Saxons.

If you have family from Ireland or Great Britain, this is a must read for you.

Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden

Ejhg2006karlssonmap The authors writing in a 2006 issue of the European Journal of Human Genetics explored the Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden: sampling seven Swedish regions, one Finnish region and a Swedish Saami population. Haplogroup I1a* (37%) was the most numerous (same as in Norway) and together with R1b3, R1a1 and N3 accounted for over 80% of the male lineages.

Västerbotten shows gene flow of N3 chromosomes into that region from Saami and Finnish populations. Part of the differing genetic makeup found in Västerbotten may also be traceable to a significant absence of males there in the 17th Century.

Chromosomes in haplogroup R1b3 were found to have the highest STR variation suggesting it to be one of the earliest of the major male lineages in Sweden.

Sweden as whole n=305: I1a* (37%), I1c (4.9%), J (3.6%), G (1.6%), N (9.5%), R1a1 (11.8%), R1b3 (23.6%)

I1a: 45% in Götland & Värmland, 41% in Östergötland/Jönköping, 38% in Uppsala, 35% in Skaraborg, 29% in Blekinge/Krstianstad, 24% in Västerbotten.

I1c: was less than 5% except in Västerbotten where it was 17%

N: 65% in Österbotten & 45% in Swedish Saami, 19.5% in Västerbotten, 14.5% in Uppsala, 9.5% in Värmland, 7.3% in Blekinge/Krstianstad and less than 3% elsewhere

R1a1: ranged from 7.5% to 17 % in all areas

R1b3: Is highest in Uppsala (25.5%) and Blekinge/Krstianstad (31.7) with other areas in the mid teens to low 20% except Swedish Saami and Österbotten, which were below 8%.

Time to most recent common ancestor for I1a = 6,200 yrs; N3 = 3,300 yrs; R1b3 = 9,100 yrs; R1a1 = 4,000 yrs.

Karlsson et al., Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden — A long-time perspective, European Journal of Human Genetics (2006) 14, 963–970

The frequency of SRY2627 is highest in Basques, where it makes up 5/(19+5) ~ 21% of R1b. Its R1b frequency in northern Portuguese was 6/(6+203) ~2.9%. Similar values were obtained for Spanish samples. Based on very small numbers the Northern French R1b sample reached 2/(2+20) ~9%. The Bavarian R1b estimate was 2/(2+38) ~5%. Dutch and Belgian estimates were roughly half that figure: 2.5%. The only indication of it being present in Britain or Ireland came from Anglia where it had a frequency about 1%.

Based on STR haplotypes the Basques share many similarities with Irish, Cornish and Scottish R1b. It is commonly assumed that these Islands were re-inhabited after the LGM by R1b hunter/gatherers who moved into these regions from a refugia in Iberia as the ice receded. However, the high proportion of the SRY2627 mutation in Iberia, and its localization there, suggests it occurred after this dispersal, or that there were multiple isolated refugia in this region. The extent and distribution of SRY2627 based on the information presented above is uncertain for certain regions, especially France where it may be quite common. Its limited occurrence in Ireland and Britain, isolated to the south coast of Britain, may indicate introgression due to trading over the last several thousand years. However, more detailed sampling is required. Unfortunately this study did not do any associated STR genotyping.

The conservative conclusion, given the extremely limited sampling, is that the SRY2627 mutation occurred in R1b after the LGM and never made its way into Britain and Ireland in large numbers. It may provide a rare marker to distinguish between migration into Britain and Ireland after the LGM and subsequent predominantly R1b prehistoric “Celtic” invasions. If this is the case it suggests much less than 5% of the population was replaced in England by invading Celts. Typically Celts have been historically recorded as invading over a period ranging from 100-1000 BC. However, a much better sampling of France and Europe is required before definitive comments can be made on its value for this purpose.

Briefly it makes up around 20% of R1b of Irish origin and is also prevalent in western Scotland. The data of Moore et al. (2006) who used more restrictive criteria in defining the cluster suggested it is very prevalent in North West Ireland, and based on its association with surnames they demonstrated a significant association with Ui Neill descendants (these are descendants of Niall of the nine hostages an extremely famous Irish King of the 5th century AD). The cluster is about 46% of the age of R1b and is most likely at least 3400 years old based on extremely conservative assumptions. Much more has been written and speculated about this SNP on the Genealogy DNA listserver.

SNP testing to date has shown a remarkable correlation between M222+ individuals and the R1bSTR19Irish cluster, with 16 publicly positive individuals out of 47 tested all of which fall within this cluster. In fact they display almost identical properties to the R1bSTR19 cluster previously defined above. Around 40 negative results have been reported and they cover a major part of the balance of R1b. It is still possible that M222+ individuals exist outside of this cluster but they are rare.

R1b1c6 Haplogroup R1b1c is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. Its branch R1b1c6 is found primarily in the British Isles, but can also be found at lower frequencies around Western Europe.

Haplogroup R1b1c is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. Its branch R1b1c7 is primarily found in Northern Ireland, and contains the Niall Modal Haplotype.

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