- Indigenous peoples of Europe
- Indigenous peoples of Europe
Sami people U5
Basque people R1b
Notable indigenous populations include the:
Basques of Northern Spain and Southern France
Sami people of northern Scandinavia
The Rossen Culture
Northwest Germanic-Balkan (R1b1c9)
The Northern European element north of and surrounding the Jutland Peninsula being largely those with the S21 marker (R1b1c9).
> Based on some research data from Norway it appears that the majority of
> the “Viking R1b” was R1b1c9 (S21) and to a lesser extent R1b1c10 (S28).
> The TCD team did not test for these markers but will do so at a later
> It is also debatable whether using the surnames employed in the study is
> the best way to identify those of Viking descent. For example the surname
> Arthur if found in Shetland it indeed denotes someone whose ancestors were
> Viking (it was actually Arthurson but the son was dropped). However,
> especially considering that two of the three Arthurs were E3b, a source in
> England is possible. Hendricks may be a German surname. In 1709 the
> English government established a large settlement of Palatine Germans in
> Ireland. I am not sure that surnames are a good indication of Viking
> ancestry in Ireland.
> Jim Wilson noted in one of his 2001 papers that R1a was the only
> unequivocal indicator of Viking ancestry in Britain. Five years later
> this conclusion may need to be modified slightly to take into account a
> modicum of R1a in the Anglo - Saxon invaders. Certainly R1a from Ireland
> or Scotland is much more likely to be Norse Viking than anything else.
> The “Ui Neill study” by Moore at TCD study collected 796 Irish samples and
> only 3 were R1a, which certainly is very low indeed and supporting the
> hypothesis that Viking genetic input was minimal. However there were
> fairly substantial numbers of haplogroup I whose origins are a mystery (at
> least to me).
> I suppose it is possible that even if 5% of the R1b was R1b1c9 this might
> reflect a notable Viking input but I would put this into the same category
> as haplogroup I since it may be via Anglo - Saxon or Norse sources. A
> more persuasive argument could be made if there was a detectable R1b1c10
> (S28) input. This is probably much like R1a in that the only likely
> source is Norse Viking. To date S28 has, however, not been observed in
> Ireland, at least via the customer base of EthnoAncestry.
> In my opinion the .004% R1a in the Irish sample (the percentage being
> typically about 30% in Norway) does argue for a very limited genetic
> contribution of the Vikings to the Irish gene pool. In looking at a map
> of the areas the Vikings raided (just about everywhere there was a river)
> the findings are quite surprising - given the reputation of the Vikings in
> the rape and pillage department (but the numbers may also be telling us
> something about Viking behavior; or the response of the Irish women to
> same). How many of the apparently few Irish Viking Y-chromsomes are
> attributable to “casual encounters” versus stable Viking families
> integrated into the Gaelic community. Considering the documented presence
> of Norse and some Danish Vikings in Ireland it is surprising that their
> genetic signature is not apparent. However it is possible that as they
> began to lose power the Norse Vikings of Dublin etc. migrated to Chester,
> York and Cumbria in England or to Iceland leaving very
> few of their confreres in the Emerald Isle.
> David Faux.
13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17
13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 16 17
William the Conqueror, 1066
13 25 14 11 12 14 12 12
11 13 13 29 17 10 10 11
11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16
13 23 14 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 09 10 11 11 25 15 20
33 15 15 17 17
R1b1c9; Scottish Orkney - Germanic / Scandanavian; The name
is from Caithness, Mainland Scotland. The surname was
originally St. Clair, from the vicinity of Pont d'Eveque of
Normandy - St. Clair sur L'Elle. The Sinclairs became Earls
of Caithness, Orkney and Shetland, and claimed descent from
Rognvald, Earl of Orkney 871, and the latter's son Rollo, 1st
Duke of Normandy. However, it appears that many of their
tenants adopted the surname - which would play havoc in
trying to find the Y-DNA signature of the St. Clairs of
Normandy. According to Lamb, Alexander St. Clair and Thomas
St. Clair were in Kirkwall, Orkney in 1364, the latter the
Governor of Orkney "representing the King of Norway". By the
1500s the name had become common in Shetland; None yet
recorded; John SINCLAIR, born 1815 at Houss, Burra Isle to
Charles SINCLAIR (born about 1766) and Barbara GOUDIE; Rare
R1b signature. No matches in FTDNA customer database of
about 30,000. In Haplogroup Database one exact match from
Poland. 11 / 12 match with 6 Native Siberians (largest
number of one step mutation matches). The Recent Ethnic
Origins Database indicates that there are also those with
this haplotype from various parts of Britain. An inspection
of an Orkney database showed a 6/6 match with a Sinclair
there; It is possible that we are seeing the original Norman
St. Clair Y-DNA signature here. There are prominent
Sincliars from Houss, Burra as early as 1515, however it is
not known if the participant is a descendant of this branch.
Support for this interpretation comes from an individual from
France who has a 44 generation genealogy leading back to one
Eystein who died circa 890 AD. He matches this participant
19/25 which, considering the time factor and some rare marker
values may be worth noting. On paper the MRCA with the
Sinclairs of Normandy would be this man via two sons. This
participant found further reasonably close matches a Feagan,
who claims descent from William the Conqueror; and also a St.
Clair whose ancestor Alexander Sinkler arrived in virginia
1698 from Mainland Scotland. He matches the Shetland
participant on 20/25 markers. More definitive statements
will have to await the testing of other Sinclairs. Here the
S21+ finding points to a Germanic / Scandinavian origin
Famous R1b members:
William The Conqueror,
The Royal Bruce of Scotland family,
James V of Scotland,
Gerald de Windsor.
Family: Azzolina, Serraino, Merlo, Aliberti, Fuoti, Patti, Todaro, Russo
Location: Santo Stefano Di Camastra, Messina, Sicily, Italy
Haplogroup: U5 (subclade U5a1a - North European - Near Eastern)
Haplogroup U5 was the very first mtDNA haplogroup to settle Europe, approximately 40,000 years ago, at a time when many other mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups were arising far to the East. Haplogroup U5 originated somewhere between Turkey and the Ukraine, possibly in Greece or Macedonia.
Cheddar Man, a male from 7150 BC whose remains were found in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England was shown to be U5a, a very early and Europe-specific haplogroup clade.
Family: Caggegi - Raciti
Location: Randazzo, Catania, Sicily, Italy
Haplogroup: R1b (M343) - (subclade R1b1c - Western European)
This subgroup probably originated in Central Asia/South Central Siberia and appears to have entered prehistoric Europe mainly from the area of Ukraine/Belarus or Central Asia (Kazakhstan) via the coasts of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. It is believed by many to have been widespread in Europe before the last Ice Age, and associated with the Aurignacian culture (32,000 - 21,000 BC) of the Cro-Magnon people, the first modern humans to enter Europe. The Cro-Magnons were the first documented human artists, making sophisticated cave paintings. Famous sites include Lascaux in France, Cueva de las Monedas in Spain and Valley of Foz Côa in Portugal (the largest open-air site in Europe).
The subclades R1b1c4 (M153) and R1b1c6 (SRY2627 (M167)) have been found to be typical of the Basque people; these subclades are only rarely found among Spaniards from other parts of Spain and are found sporadically among other European populations, which at one time was thought to indicate some sort of founder effect or genetic drift among a rather genetically isolated population of proto-Basques. Commercial testing has shown M167 to occur in Southwest England and Ireland, and to a lesser extent in Scotland. This haplogroup has also been reported from France (although a sampling bias may be at "fault" since relatively few French samples have been tested), and as far east as Germany. One problem that is critical to the understanding of the origin of R1b in Europe but which has been overlooked by popularizers of various theories is that the R1b frequency peak found in the Basque Country, Pyrenees, and southwestern France actually overlaps a zone of extremely decreased diversity of R1b-associated STR haplotypes.
The R1b1c9 (S21) subclade, although recently discovered by EthnoAncestry, appears to be the most common downstream marker from R1b1c appearing in over 35% of those tested. It appears that this group has a maximum in Northern Germany and is the predominant R1b haplogroup in Scandinavia. The exact technical definition of the SNP was not initially released for commercial reasons, but the same marker was subsequently independently identified (as their "U106") by Sims et al (2007).
Longobards - Tribe of Baltic origin that settled in northern Italy (Lombardy) and established feudal towns in the South.
Normans - People of Frankish and Nordic (Viking) origin in Normandy who conquered parts of Italy and Britain in 11th century.
Sicilian Peoples: The Normans
by Vincenzo Salerno
To call them "Vikings" (Norsemen) is to oversimplify the culture of the medieval Normans, for their society, heritage and genetic make-up were as Frankish and Roman as they were Norse. The term "Norman" refers to the residual Norse and Frankish civilization of Normandy. Much as the Lombards of Lombardy were not purely Longobardic, the Normans of Normandy were not purely Norse. In fact, they were descended not only from Vikings but from Franks, Romans and Celts, and their language was a dialect of French. Unlike their Viking forebears, the Normans were Christians, and their society was highly evolved in its government, law, art, architecture and literature, which during the twelfth century profoundly influenced not only Normandy but England and southern Italy.
The Norsemen ("Viking" comes from the early Scandinavian word vikingr for "pirates") were Danish, Norwegian and Swedish adventurers who rose to power in the ninth century, raiding the coasts of northwestern Europe in places like England and Ireland, and sailing as far as North America. The Swedish element penetrated overland and along rivers into the Baltics and Russia to the Black Sea. Constantinople's Varangian Guard consisted of Vikings such as Harald Sigurdsson ("Hardrada") who fought alongside Normans with George Maniakes in Byzantine Sicily. The Vikings were initially pagans, and their colorful mythology has given us the English names of several days of the week (Wednesday for Woden, Thursday for Thor, etc.), following an earlier Roman custom of naming the days for gods (as in the Italian Mercoledì for Mercury and Giovedì for Jove or Jupiter).
The Franks were a Germanic tribe which settled in Gaul (France and southern Belgium) during the decline of the Roman Empire. The Romans abandoned part of Belgium to the Franks in AD 358. By 507, much of France was united under the Christianized Frankish king Clovis. This included what is now Normandy.
By 900, Vikings were raiding this region but also establishing outposts there. In antiquity, the region of the Seine and Eure valleys had Norman knights depicted in the cloister of Monreale Abbey, outside Palermo.been Celtic. It fell under Roman control through the efforts of Julius Caesar. The Franks had ruled not only in the person of Clovis, but under the reign of Charlemagne. After 911, Charles III "the Simple" ceded Normandy to the Norse chieftain Hrolf (Rollo), who became a Christian. Immigration rapidly increased, and by 1000, following several generations of intermarriage with the "native" Frankish-Celtic population (i.e. Viking men marrying Frankish women), a distinct ethnic culture had emerged. In the decades to follow, Norman knights arrived in Italy, first as pilgrims and then as mercenaries, taking part (on both sides) in the wars between Byzantines and Lombards. In some cases, these were the younger sons of nobles who (under Frankish law) could not inherit lands destined for eldest sons. In others, they were simply wandering men-at-arms.
In general, the Normans of England were somewhat higher-born than their compatriots in Italy, their surnames typically based on familial fiefs in Normandy. Like the conquest of England, the Normans' conquest of Italy was characterized by social and political motivations, though it was much slower than the English campaign. The patriarchs of Rome (the popes) resented Byzantine influence in Italy, and the power of the Lombard feudatories (in peninsular Italy) was viewed as a nuisance. There were also more racist motives. Whereas the competition between Saxons and Normans for England was largely a question of Saxon English-ness versus Norman greed, the campaign against the Sicilian Arabs had all the makings of a "holy war," whether justified or not. The Papacy made it clear that restoring Sicily to Latin Christiandom (separating its Orthodox Christians from Constantinople's influence) was at least as important as reducing the influence of Islam on the island. In the event, the Normans did not Latinize Sicily rapidly enough for Papal tastes, nor did they immediately seek to convert the island's Muslims. In fact, they were often at odds with the popes.
In 1054, the Church separated. The Great Schism left the Latin ("Roman") West distinctive of the Byzantine ("Greek") East, resulting in the churches now described as "Catholic" and "Orthodox." In truth, the conflict had been brewing for two centuries or more, and far transcended theology. In 1061, having assumed control of much of southern Italy, a Norman force crossed into Sicily at Messina and seized the city from its Saracen garrison. The Sicilian conquest now underway was slow and difficult. In 1066, a Norman force, including some knights who had fought in the Italian campaigns, won the Battle of Hastings (based in part on tactics learned at Messina), establishing the Norman presence in England. London was taken soon afterward. In Sicily, on the other hand, the de Hauteville brothers, Robert "Guiscard" and Roger, reached Palermo only in 1071. While Saxon lords paid fealty to William "the Conqueror" of England almost immediately, it took Roger and his knights more than a decade following the Battle of Palermo to bring the entire island under Norman control. (Emir Ibn Hamud of Kasr Yanni surrendered only in 1087.) It was worth the effort. Their Norman coin, 1150.Mediterranean jewel was more important --and far wealthier-- than William's rainy realm in the North Sea; revenues from the city of Palermo alone eclipsed those of all England.
For all that, the Normans were not the first northern European invaders to reach Sicilian shores during the Middle Ages. That distinction belongs to the Vandals and Goths, whose rule was short-lived and left few visible traces. By contrast, vestiges of Norman Sicily are everywhere to be found. --particularly churches and castles.
Sicilian society was more sophisticated than what the Normans encountered in England or even mainland Italy. The polyglot culture of the Arabs and Byzantines was a prosperous intellectual, artistic and economic environment at the center of the most important region of the "Western World" --the Mediterranean. It was a geographic crossroads between north and south, east and west. The beautiful Romanesque architectural style of Normandy (Cefalù's cathedral is based on Caen's Saint Etienne church), so important in changing the face of Saxon England, was welcome in Sicily, but it merely embellished what the Byzantines and Arabs already knew. The "Norman-Arab" style of art and architecture was unique, combining Byzantine, Moorish and northern European movements in a new expression of aesthetics.
More important than this was the evolution of the social fabric of Norman Sicily, adapting essentially Arab institutions to European realities. Throughout the Norman era (roughly from1070 to 1200), ethnic and religious tolerance were generally accepted as integral parts of Sicilian society. Though there were conflicts, multicultural co-existence usually prevailed. The Church, but also the Sicilian language, was gradually Latinized. European institutions such as feudalism were introduced. In effect, Norman Sicily became part of Europe rather than Africa (under the Moors) or Asia (under the Byzantines).
On a humanistic level, its multicultural orientation was important enough, but Sicily's emergence as one of Europe's most important regions ushered in a "Golden Age" which continued into the "Swabian" era (of Frederick II) during the thirteenth century. It was probably Sicily's finest hour. The twelfth century saw Sicily become a kingdom under Roger II (whose realm included not only Sicily but most of Italy south of Rome). The Norman government included clerics and from England and Normandy, great Arab thinkers such as Abdullah al-Idrisi, and a young Anglo-Norman queen.
Nowadays, "New World" nations such as Canada, the United States and Australia seem to represent the epitome of tolerant, multicultural societies. In the Middle Ages, however, the concept was a novel one. True, the Roman Empire had embraced many cultures, but it could be argued that Norman Sicily supported a truer equality than most places offered, and it was more benevolent than ancient Rome. Slavery was eventually all but abolished, and serfdom was never as prevalent as it was in England, France or Germany, while freedom of speech and literacy came to be considered every Sicilian's birthright. The Normans' system of justice allowed separate --but equal-- jurisdictions based on Shari'a law for Muslims, Judaic law for Jews, Byzantine Greek law for Byzantines and Norman feudal law for Normans. Important documents were multilingual. True, a Latin (and Roman Catholic) orientation eventually prevailed, but until the reign of Frederick II a more or less egalitarian society existed. At least for a time, it was a successful experiment, and a necessary one.
Despite its ethnic diversity, or perhaps because of it, Norman Sicily evolved into an enduring "nation" with Sicilians as its "people." In other Italian regions such developments were literally centuries away. (This was even true of Sardinia, which, as an island, might reasonably be expected to assume a "national" identity long before it did.) In time, the territory ruled by the Normans, contiguous to Magna Graecia, became known to Italians simply as "il Regno" ("the Kingdom"). Palermo (the Arabs' Bal'harm) was the capital of this realm and later, under Frederick II, the capital of the entire Holy Roman Empire. The period beginning with the arrival of the Normans in 1061 and ending with the death of their descendant, Frederick, in 1250, was a brief --but remarkable-- shining moment in European history.
The Normans retained much of Arab society. After all, there was no need to change certain things which functioned well. Some North meets South and East meets West in Palermo in 1148. Tomb inscriptions in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Arabic.everyday sights, like the souks (street markets) and Romanesque windows, still exist, of course, but throughout the twelfth century it was the Arabs' institutions that truly distinguished Sicily from other Norman territories, particularly England. Instead of abolishing existing policies and institutions, the Normans built upon what already existed, adapting these as they found necessary. This was enlightened rule, especially from renegades and mercenaries who just a few decades earlier were pillaging the Italian countryside.
It is generally believed that most red-haired and blue-eyed Sicilians owe their coloring to the medieval Normans or the Lombards who often accompanied them. Yet we do not know how many Normans settled in Sicily. Most were men, most were knights or other soldiers, and many were feudatories, effectively constituting the earliest medieval Sicilian landed aristocracy. Most married Sicilian-born women. The best estimate of the Norman migration places it at fewer than eight thousand persons arriving between 1061 and 1161, but even this is highly speculative. It certainly was not a mass immigration comparable to those of the Arabs (Saracens) or ancient Greeks. The first Norman incursions into Sicily were measured in hundreds of Norman knights accompanied by greater numbers of non-Norman infantry, and not all of them remained here. Except for Benedictine and diocesan clergy, there were few men of learning among the Norman arrivals.
Change did not come overnight. Some localities were more Orthodox Christian and Greek-speaking while others were predominantly Muslim and Arabic-speaking. Mosques stood alongside churches and synagogues. The Norman vassals and knights, though Christian, were Roman Catholic. It was the Normans who Latinized Sicily (just as they Latinized the language of Saxon England), both linguistically and ecclesiastically. Some isolated Orthodox monasteries in the northeast of Sicily survived this process for a time, but most of Sicily's greatest Norman churches, though boasting some superficially Byzantine elements, were founded (or re-constructed) as Latin (Roman Catholic) ones.
The Norman era lasted through four rulers (two Rogers succeeded by two Williams), followed by a Swabian (German) wed to Constance, the last surviving Norman princess, in a land where --at least in theory-- only men ruled. Her son, Frederick II, could be said to have continued the Norman tradition but he was a Hohenstaufen and not a Hauteville. In the event, the "home rule" of Sicily from its own capital effectively ended with his death in the middle of the thirteenth century. Henceforth, the island was to be governed from Naples or from cities even further afield. The Sicily of the Normans represents a unique time in history which, like all such periods, was not to last forever. In the words of John Julius Norwich:
"Norman Sicily stood forth in Europe --and indeed in the whole bigoted medieval world-- as an example of tolerance and enlightenment, a lesson in the respect that every man should feel for those whose blood and beliefs happen to differ from his own."
About the Author: Palermo native Vincenzo Salerno has written biographies of several famous Sicilians, including Frederick II and Giuseppe di Lampedusa.
East Anglia is a region of eastern England, named after one of the ancient Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, which was named after the homeland of the Angles, Angeln in northern Germany. The kingdom consisted of Norfolk and Suffolk, names which possibly arose during or after the Danish settling ("North folk [people]" and "South folk [people]"); but the region's boundaries, however, are vague.
User ID: J2CGH
Profile is the Modal haplotype for the Hg R1b1 participants in the East Anglia Geographic DNA Project. See Project website for details: http://www.geocities.com/thurlowons/eagdna/
East Anglia, England
Other - FTDNA, DNAH, RG, Other