Northern Spain [Basque] 19.05% - Aragonese
Germany: Saxony [Sorbs] 18.18% - Swabians - Lombards
Holland: Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 13.04% - Normans
Pyrenees, Spain 12.88% - Aragonese
Southern Ireland 10.28% - Anglo-Saxons - Normans


2.3% - SC - Scotland - Anglo-Saxons - Normans
2.0% - FI - Finland - Longobards - Lombards
1.9% - CP - center Portugal - Spanish
1.5% - SG - south Germany - Lombards
1.4% - NG - north Germany - Normans
1.2% - NO - Norway - Longobards - Lombards, Norse - Normans
1.0% - SP - south Portugal - Spanish
0.5% - FR - France - Normans - Angevin French
0.5% - NP - north Portugal - Spanish
0.4% - EN - England - Anglo-Saxons - Normans


Super Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype

The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype is the most common Y-DNA signature of Europe’s most common Haplogroup, R1b. Simply put your ancestors have experienced a dramatic population explosion over the past 10,000 years, probably since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM-that’s Anthropology-speak for the last Ice Age) that covered most of Europe beginning 20,000 years ago and lasting for 10,000 long cold winters.

R1b, and its most common Haplotype (yours), exists in high or very high frequencies in all of Western Europe from Spain in the south to the British Isles and western Scandinavia in the north. It appears that approximately 2.5% in Western European males share this most common genetic 12 marker signature and because of its very high frequency we always suggest that for genealogy purposes people in this group should only use our 25 or 37 marker test for their genealogy.

Anthropologists have been describing for many years that only a select % of all the males in past societies did the vast majority of fathering, while other males lost the opportunity to pass on their Y-Chromosomal genes.

On a lighter note it’s clear that R1b’s Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype has contributed much more than its ‘fair share’ in populating Western Europe.

Northern Spain [Basque] 19.05
Germany: Saxony [Sorbs] 18.18
Holland: Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 13.04
Pyrenees, Spain 12.88
Southern Ireland 10.28

Spain: Zaragoza, Aragon 8.33
Birmingham, England 8.25
Spain: Barcelona, Catalonia 8.04
Lombardy, Northern Italy 7.14
Madeira, Portugal 7.14
Northern Portugal 7.14
Central Portugal 7.03
Holland: Limburg, Southern Netherlands 6.00
Cantabria, Northern Spain 5.94
Andulacia, Southern Spain 5.88
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 5.62
Munster, Westphalia 5.61
Asturias, Northern Spain 5.56
Leiden, Western Netherlands 5.21
London, England 4.86
Brussels, Belgium 4.80
Blekinge, Sweden 4.76
Madrid, Central-East Spain 4.73
Eastern Norway 4.71
Lausanne, Western Switzerland 4.63
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg 4.62
Northern Norway 4.44
Bern, Switzerland 4.39
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 4.17
Dusseldorf, Westphalia 4.00
Umbria, Central Italy 3.92
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt 3.89
Marche, Eastern Italy 3.70
Valencia, Eastern Spain 3.57
Uppsala, Sweden 3.51
Oslo, Norway 3.33
Munich, Bavaria 3.19
Denmark 3.17
Strasbourg, Alsace 3.03
Berlin, Brandenburg 2.91
Tuscany, Central Italy 2.75
Southern Portugal 2.68
Cabinda, Angola 2.67
Tyrol, Western Austria 2.62
Chemnitz, Saxony 2.56
Liguria, Western italy 2.47
Leipzig, Saxony 2.42
Ostergotland Jonkoping, Sweden 2.38
Varmland, Sweden 2.33
Netherlands 2.29
Friesland, Northern Netherlands 2.27
Caceres, Central-West Spain 2.19
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Sicily, Southern Italy 2.01
Sweden 1.98
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg 1.94
Latium, Central Italy 1.80
Hamburg, Northern Germany 1.76
Cologne, Westphalia 1.48
Rostock, Mecklenburg 1.48
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
South Caucasus [Georgian] 1.29
Baranya, Southern Hungary [Romani] 1.28
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Albania .99
Romania .98
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Krakow, Southern Poland .93
Gdansk, Northern Poland .92
Paris, France .92
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Bulgaria .82
Tartu, Estonia .75
Macedonia .67
Turkey .63
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Finland .25
Atlantic Modal Haplotype #2

The haplotype below is the most common haplotype in the YHRD database, and it may be considered classic (or "Western") AMH. It occurs all over Europe, and the paternal ancestors of someone with this haplotype could easily have come from anywhere. When that person has British roots, Occam's Razor is generally applied and a "deep ancestry" among the Celtic-speaking, pre-Roman population of Britain is assumed.

Much of this population has been in Western Europe since the Paleolithic, and is thought to have migrated to the British Isles from either Spain or France.

Sure enough, of the top twenty frequencies listed below, half occur in samples of Iberian origin.

The highest frequency occurs among the Basques, who have been shown to be nearly identical, in Y chromosome terms, to predominantly Celtic populations like the Irish and the Welsh. Southern Ireland itself exhibits the sixth highest frequency of this haplotype.

Yet a sample from Saxony comes in second, and one from the western Netherlands comes in fourth. Two Italian samples also exhibit frequencies among the top twenty. Since the Atlantic

Modal Haplotype occurs in relatively high proportions, not just in Iberia and the British Isles, but also in areas like Germany and The Netherlands, we cannot rule out an Anglo-Saxon origin for any "Border Reiver" descendant with this haplotype. It is not the simplest assumption we can make, but it is a reasonable assumption. Nor, with the high frequencies in Iberia and Italy, can we rule out an origin among Roman settlers.

The best assumption that we can make about the ancestry of "Border Reiver" descendants with this haplotype is that it is most likely a mixture of several possible origins

Northern Spain [Basque] 19.05%
Saxony [Sorbs] 18.18%
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 13.04%
Pyrenees, Spain 12.88%
Southern Ireland 10.28%

My R1b1c:
My R1b1c:


13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29


13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 09 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 17 17


R1b1c; Scottish Orkney - Celtic / Pictish; A title of honour for one who superintends household affairs for royalty, including tax collection, and the person at the right hand of the King in battle. Ultimately there was a Scottish Royal family of Stewarts - supposed to be descended from a line of Breton nobles. The Bruce and Stewart families were alligned by marriage and ultimately Robert Stewart, son of King Robert the Bruce, was crowned in 1371. Black makes that point that the name Steward became common since, for example, each bishop would have his own steward. Thus not every Stewart will be descended from the Royal household of Scotland - but it is possible that all Stewarts of Shetlands are true descendants. According to Martine, true descendants of the Royal family are descendants of Alan, Seneschal of Dol, a Celtic noble, and he also comments on how prolific this family was and implies that all Stewarts are Royal descendants and can trace their lineage to the Royal castle in Holyrood near Edinburgh. Lamb notes that the Stewarts were at one time Earls of Orkney; The participant"s family has maintained that "somewhere there was a connection to Robert Stewart Commendator of the Abbey Holyrood" and that the descent is via one of Robert's many known "formal" and "informal" relationships with women; John STEWART, born 1750, Whalsay (Brough); Whoever is the ancestor of those with this signature was indeed prolific. There are 208, 12 / 12 matches in the FTDNA database (the largest number known). In addition there are large numbers of matches at the 23, 24, and 4 at the 25 / 25 level. One of the latter matches is with a Stewart, and 2 of 8 of the 24/25 mathces are also Stewarts. At the 37 marker level, there are 34/37 matches with two CLANCEYs, and two STEWARTs. Work is ongoing to see if it can be shown that there is a DNA link to the Stewarts of the Mainland; It is possible that the signature we are seeing here is that of the Royal household of Scotland. In consulting with those connected with Scottish clan chieftains it was their opinin that the signature "Was Flaad, Senechal of Dol (traditionally Flaad "fitz Alan"). We need to get the DNA of someone like Stewart of Castle Stewart, Stewart of Galloway or Arrdvorlich or Appin, or another known male line descendant of Flaad" (DM). Clearly more work needs to be done in Shetland and on the Mainland, hopefully, as noted above, by testing someone known to be a Stewart Royal descendant. The DNA finding of S21 and S28 minus on these Germanic and Continental markers lends support to the contention that this haplotype is native Celtic / Pictish.

NE, North Europe; - Central Europe; 9.1%
BR, Britain; - Central Europe; 9.1%



Greater Frisia - Northern Germanic / Scandanavian


Originary Santo Stefano di Camastra was called "Santo Stefano di Mistretta",and in this way it is mentioned in Norman-Swabian documents.

Trigona - Barone di Azzolina

Fu giurato in Piazza nel 1741-42 e capitano di giustizia nell’anno 1744-45; un Francesco Maria Trigona e Bonanno, barone di Azzolina.

North-Eastern Sicilian:
North-Eastern Sicilian:

U5a1a = Norman

The town originated around the Benedictine monastery of Santa Croce di Santo Stefano in Val Demone, established in the Norman period (11th century AD), and took at that time the name of Santo Stefano di Mistretta (Mistretta being at the time the nearest important center).

R1b1c9/R1b1c9a = Lombard

Lombard immigrants in Randazzo (Catania Provincia).

A Lombard Community around the church San Martino in Randazzo (Catania Provincia).

The Lombards (the last to come, with the Normans) in San Martino in Randazzo (Catania Provincia).

R1b1c9 (being the predominant variety in Holland, Northern Germany and Scandinavia)

Norse: European to East German

Northern Spain [Basque]

Saxony [Sorbs]

Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands

Pyrenees, Spain

Southern Ireland

Lusatia (German: Lausitz, Upper Sorbian: Łužica, Lower Sorbian: Łužyca, Polish: Łużyce, Czech: Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern Czech Republic.


According to the earliest records, the area was settled by Celtic tribes. Later, around 100 BC, the Germanic tribe of the Semnones settled in that area. Around the year 600 CE the Slavic people known as the Milceni settled permanently in the region. In about 928, Germans and Poles began invading the region. Lusatia changed hands repeatedly, belonging in turn to Samo's Empire, Greater Moravia, and Czech Kingdom of Bohemia. In 1002, the Poles took control of the region, and Lusatia became part of Poland in 1018 until it was absorbed by the German principalities of Meissen and Brandenburg less than twenty years later. In 1076 Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire awarded Lusatia as a fief to the Bohemian duke Vratislav II. Around 1200 large numbers of German settlers came to Lusatia, settling in the forested areas yet not settled by the Slavs. Upper Lusatia remained under Bohemian rule until the Thirty Years' War when it became part of Saxony. In 1815 Upper Lusatia was divided, with the eastern part around Görlitz now belonging to Prussia. Following the Lutheran Reformation, Lusatia became Protestant but especially the Sorbs stayed mainly catholic till today. In 1945 the eastern part rejoined Saxony and in 1952, when the state of Saxony was divided into three administrative areas, Upper Lusatia became part of the Dresden administrative region. 1990 the state of Saxony was reestablished.

Region where the Sorbs live in Germany

Since ethnicity is not a legal category in Germany for German citizens, their number can only be guessed. The constitutions of both Brandenburg and Saxony explicitly declare any inquiry about ethnicity unconstitutional and illegal. But every citizen is free to view himself/herself as a Sorb and thus choose his/her ethnic identity, which must not be testified or examined by any state authority. Current estimates speak of 10,000 to 30,000 active speakers of Sorbian (almost all of them are bilingual) and about 60,000 people who subjectively consider themselves Sorbs.

The Sorbs (Upper Sorbian: Serbja, Lower Sorbian: Serby) are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). They are or were also known as Lusatians, Wends, “Lusatian Serbs” or “Serbs of Luzice (Upper Sorbian: Łužica, Lower Sorbian: Łužyca).”

DYS 426=12, DYS 388=12
DYS 426=12, DYS 388=12

Haplogroup: R1b1c9 (tested)

Last name: German

Variant last names: Jarman Jerman Jarmon Gearman


Haplogroup: R1b1c9*
Last name: DYS492_13_R1b


About 95% of males with DYS492=13 also have the "S21" SNP

About 65% of S21 males have DYS390=23 and about 30% have DYS390=24


Frederick II
The last Norman king designated Constance, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, as his heir and the kingdom passed successively to Frederick II, Conrad IV, Manfred, and Conradin of Hohenstaufen.

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194-1250) was Holy Roman emperor from 1215 to 1250. His unsuccessful effort to establish a strong centralized Italian state brought him into a long and bitter conflict with the papacy and the Italian urban centers.

Born in lesi, Italy, Frederick II was the only son of Emperor Henry VI and of Constance of Sicily. His father died in 1197 and his mother, who served as regent for him, a year later. As the orphan king of Sicily, he was the ward of the great pope Innocent III, who ignored his education and training but kept his kingdom intact for him. Frederick grew up in Palermo, surrounded by factions who attempted to use him for their own ends and influenced by the Islamic and Greek culture that pervaded the dissolute Sicilian court.

At first Frederick was ignored in the empire of his father, where his able uncle Philip of Swabia and the Welf Otto IV, son of Henry the Lion, were quarreling over the imperial title. By 1211, however, Philip was dead and Otto IV had broken with Innocent III, who had previously supported him. So, when a group of German nobles asked him to go to Germany to assume the imperial crown, Frederick made his infant son, Henry, king of Sicily and hastened to Frankfurt, where in 1212 he was chosen ruler of Germany. He pacified the papacy, which feared a union between Sicily and the empire, by promising Innocent III that he would abdicate his Sicilian throne in favor of his son and that he would go on a crusade at the earliest opportunity. In 1214 Otto IV was defeated at Bouvines by Frederick's ally King Philip II (Augustus) of France, and in 1215 Frederick was recognized as emperor-elect by Pope Innocent III, who died a little while later.

Early Reign

Frederick began his reign as emperor in Germany by gaining the support of the magnates, both lay and ecclesiastical, by confirming in 1213 and 1220 their right to the privileges they had usurped in 1197 on the death of Emperor Henry VI. He then made his son, Henry, king of Germany and his viceroy and returned to Italy, which from this time on occupied most of his attention, for Germany never interested him except as a source of support for his Italian projects. Immediately upon his return he persuaded Pope Honorius III to crown him emperor and managed to put off giving up Sicily, as he had promised, on the grounds he needed to pacify it so that it could support his crusade.

The first task Frederick undertook was to establish firm control over the kingdom of Sicily, which had been in complete disorder since 1197. In 1220, in contrast with his actions in Germany, he revoked all privileges granted its towns and nobles since the death of King William II (1189), put down a Moslem revolt on the island of Sicily itself, and began to organize his realm into a tyrannical but well-administered kingdom. By 1225, prodded by Pope Honorius, he had married Yolande, heiress of the kingdom of Jerusalem (his first wife, an Aragonese princess, having died), and had made plans to proceed with his crusade to the East. He was still delaying on fulfilling this project when Pope Honorius died in 1227.

Honorius was succeeded by the aged pope Gregory IX (reigned 1227-1241), who, though over 80, was a vigorous, unrelenting foe of the young emperor. This aged pope almost at once excommunicated him for not going on crusade and, when Frederick then left for the East in 1228 without having the excommunication lifted, excommunicated him again and began planning a crusade against Frederick's Sicilian domains. Frederick proved very successful in the East, where he regained the city of Jerusalem from the Moslems by negotiation instead of war, crowned himself king of Jerusalem (a title which he retained until 1245), and built up his authority in the East. He returned in 1230 to find Pope Gregory IX attacking his kingdom of Sicily. After he had defeated the papal forces, he made Gregory lift his excommunication.

Policies in Italy

In 1231 Frederick promulgated the Constitutions of Melfi, an important code of laws that set up a nonfeudal state in Sicily. By this code the independence of towns and nobles was curbed, a centralized judicial and administrative system was established, mercenary armies were recruited, ecclesiastical privileges were limited, and commerce and industry were fostered by a uniform system of tolls and port dues and a common gold currency. At the same time his own revenues were increased by the establishment of royal monopolies over such things as salt production and the trade in grain. Sicily became one of the most prosperous realms in Europe.

Frederick then proceeded to attempt to extend his centralized rule to northern Italy, where in 1231 he made plans to subjugate its cities by appointing podestas, or imperial governors, over them. This alarmed the Pope, who saw the papacy, as in Henry VI's time, threatened between an imperial hammer in the north and the well-organized anvil of Sicily in the south. Gregory's answer was to reopen hostilities against Frederick II by attempting with some success to revive the Lombard League used against Frederick's grandfather Frederick Barbarossa. When these cities rose against him in support of a German revolt of his son King Henry, Frederick suppressed the revolt and in 1237 won a great victory over the Milanese at Cortenuova. As a result of this victory, the Lombard League temporarily collapsed and most of its cities submitted to him, as did the majority of the nobles of northern Italy.

While Frederick was establishing his authority firmly in Sicily and northern Italy, however, he was following quite a different policy in Germany. There in 1231 he issued the Constitution in Favor of the Princes, which had the result of making the magnates practically independent and even placed the towns under their rule. When his son Henry objected to this and revolted, Frederick suppressed his rising, threw him into prison, where he died, and replaced him as king in 1238 with his second son, Conrad. From this time on he made little attempt to exercise any real authority in Germany, whose princes, satisfied with their status, caused him no trouble. The only action of importance he took which affected Germany was his grant of a special charter to the Teutonic Knights, who, late in his reign, began their occupation of East Prussia, which they wrenched from the grasp of the kings of Poland.

In Italy, however, Pope Gregory IX still refused to accept Frederick's domination of northern Italy and excommunicated him. When his papal opponent died in 1241, Frederick reacted by using military force to keep a new pope from being elected for 2 years (1241-1243) and finally by procuring the election of a Ghibelline pope, Innocent IV (reigned 1243-1254). Innocent IV, however, soon broke with Frederick and fled from Italy to Lyons, where in 1245 he held a great Church council which condemned Frederick as the antichrist. The efforts of the Pope to enlist French and English support against this great Hohenstaufen ruler, however, proved abortive, and the war continued in Italy.

Frederick, relying on his able illegitimate sons and on lieutenants like Ezzalino, fought valiantly against the continuing resistance of the cities of Lombardy and the Papal States. Finally his army was badly defeated near Parma in 1248. By 1250, just as he was beginning to reverse the tide, he died suddenly, and his hopes of dominating all of Italy died with him. He left a number of illegitimate sons in Italy as his heirs, such as Manfred, Enzio, and Philip of Antioch, and one legitimate successor, the young Conrad across the Alps in Germany.

His Character

Frederick's character has long fascinated the historians and biographers who have studied him. He was married three times, first to Constance of Aragon, next to Yolande of Jerusalem, and finally to Isabelle of England. His real love was Bianca Lancia, with whom he carried on a lengthy liaison and who bore him several children. He had two legitimate sons and numerous illegitimate ones. He was reputed, probably with some justification, to have kept a harem in Palermo. His general lifestyle seemed to his contemporaries more Islamic than Christian; for instance, he maintained a force of Moslem mercenaries and scandalized his age by traveling with a private zoo. Though he remained formally a Christian, his spirit seemed more tolerant and skeptical than his age was ready to accept. In the cosmopolitan atmosphere of his Sicilian court, Arabic and Byzantine culture was highly prized.

Frederick proved an important patron of the arts throughout his entire reign. A poet himself, he prized southern French poetry highly, and he welcomed troubadour poets from this region when after the Albigensian Crusade they fled to his court. Through the influence of these poets, a new poetry began to be composed in the Sicilian vernacular tongue. He was also much interested in art and architecture, and under his aegis a classical artistic revival took place, anticipating that of later Renaissance Italy.

Frederick spoke a number of languages, and in 1234 he founded the University of Naples, the first state university in western Europe. He was much attracted to scientific ideas, perhaps because of his appreciation of Arabic culture. He is said to have conducted a series of experiments to determine how digestion took place, using the contents of the stomachs of executed criminals as his evidence. He also tried isolating children at birth to discover what language they would speak if untaught. He was also an enthusiastic falconer and wrote a book on the subject entitled On the Art of Hunting with Birds, which proved to be the most detailed scientific examination of ornithology written until the 19th century.

In short, Frederick deserves the title of Stupor Mundi (Wonder of the World), which his contemporaries bestowed upon him. This extraordinary man with all his faults, then, was a ruler who had the misfortune to be born before his time. He paid the price for this by seeing all his brilliance and ability brought to naught by a hostile papacy and a reluctant citizenry of the northern Italian communes. With his death Italy had to wait more than 600 years for the unity he had tried to bring about.

Frederick II

(born Dec. 26, 1194, Jesi, Ancona, Papal States — died Dec. 13, 1250, Castel Fiorentino, Apulia, Kingdom of Sicily) King of Sicily (1197 – 1250), duke of Swabia (1228 – 35), German king (1212 – 50), and Holy Roman Emperor (1220 – 50). The grandson of Frederick I Barbarossa, he became king of Sicily at age three but did not gain control over the strife-ridden country until 1212. He defeated his rival Otto IV in 1214, and though the planned union of Sicily and Germany alarmed the pope (1220), he negotiated a compromise and was crowned emperor. A delay in departing for the Sixth Crusade brought excommunication (1227), later revoked. By 1229 Frederick was king of Jerusalem. On his return he quelled a rebellion in Germany led by his son Henry, who had allied with the Lombard League. Seeing Frederick as a growing threat to papal authority, Gregory IX excommunicated him again in 1239; the emperor responded by invading the Papal States. He tried and failed (1245) to negotiate peace with Innocent IV, and his struggle with the papacy continued. By the time of his death Frederick had lost much of central Italy, and his support in Germany was uncertain.

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Norman Roman Templar Genes - Haplogroup R-M269 - R1b1a1a2 - DYS464X: 15c-15c-17c-17g

Norman Roman Templar Genes - Haplogroup R-M269 - R1b1a1a2 - DYS464X: 15c-15c-17c-17g Haplogroup R-M269 , also known as  R1b1a1a2 , is a s...