Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
House of Hohenstaufen

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197.

Coronation as Emperor

In April 1191, in Rome, Henry and Constance were crowned Emperor and Empress by Pope Celestine III. The crown of Sicily, however, was harder to gain, as the barons of southern Italy had chosen a grandson of Roger II, Tancred, count of Lecce, as their king. Henry began his work besieging Naples, but he had to return to Germany (where Henry the Lion had revolted again) after his army had been heavily hit by an epidemic. Constance, who stayed behind in the palace at Salerno, was betrayed by the Salernitans, handed over to Tancred, and only released on the intervention of Celestine III, who in return recognized Tancred as King of Sicily. Henry had a stroke of fortune when the duke of Austria Leopold gave him his prisoner, the King of England Richard I. Henry managed to exact from the English a ransom of 150,000 silver marks, a huge sum for that age, and with this money, he could raise a powerful army to conquer southern Italy.

Henry was granted free passage in Northern Italy, signing with the Italian communes a treaty in January 1194. The following April he also reached a settlement with Henry the Lion. In February Tancred died, leaving as heir a young boy, William III. Henry met little resistance and entered Palermo, capital city of the Kingdom of Sicily, on November 20, and was crowned on December 25. He is also said to have had the young William blinded and castrated, while many Sicilian nobles were burned alive. Some, however, like the Siculo-Greek Eugene of Palermo, transitioned into the new Hohenstaufen government with ease.

At that point, Henry was the most powerful monarch in the Mediterranean and Europe, since the Kingdom of Sicily added to his personal and Imperial revenues an income without parallel in Europe. Henry felt strong enough to send home the Pisan and Genoese ships without giving their governments the promised concessions in Southern Italy, and even received tribute from the Byzantine Empire. In 1194 his son, Frederick, the future emperor and king of Sicily and Jerusalem, was born. Henry secured his position in Italy, naming his friend Conrad of Urslingen as Duke of Spoleto and giving the Marche to Markward of Anweiler.

His next aim was to make the imperial crown hereditary. At the Diet of Würzburg, held in April 1196, he managed to convince the majority of the princes to vote for his proposal, but in the following one at Erfurt (October 1196) he did not achieve the same favourable result.

[edit] Death
Henry's grave in the Cathedral of Palermo.
Henry's grave in the Cathedral of Palermo.

In 1197 the tyrannical power of the foreign King in Italy spurred a revolt, especially in southern Sicily, where Arabs were the majority of the population, which his German soldiers suppressed mercilessly. In the same year Henry prepared for a Crusade, but, on September 28, he died of malaria in Messina.

His son Frederick II was to inherit both the Kingdom of Sicily and the Emperor crown.

Henry was fluent in Latin and, according to Alberic of Troisfontaines, was "distinguished by gifts of knowledge, wreathed in flowers of eloquence, and learned in canon and Roman law". He was a patron of poets and poetry, and he almost certainly composed the song "Kaiser Heinrich", now among the Weingarten Song Manuscripts.

According to his rank and with Imperial Eagle, regalia, and a scroll, he is the first and foremost to be portrayed in the famous Codex Manesse, a fourteenth century manuscript showing 140 reputed poets (see Minnesänger), and at least three poems are attributed to a young and romantically minded Henry VI. In one of those he describes a romance which makes him forget all his earthly power, and neither riches nor royal dignity can outweigh his yearning for that lady (ê ich mich ir verzige, ich verzige mich ê der krône – before I give her up, I’d rather give up the crown).



Enrico VI di Hohenstaufen
(Nimega 1165 - Messina 1197). Re di Germania (1190-1197), imperatore (dal 1191) e re di Sicilia (dal 1195). Figlio di Federico Barbarossa e di Beatrice di Borgogna, fu associato all'impero nel 1186 e sposò nello stesso anno Costanza d'Altavilla, erede del trono di Sicilia. Nel 1190, alla morte del padre e del suocero, si trovò erede dei regni di Germania, Borgogna, Italia e Sicilia. Incoronato imperatore, affrontò i baroni siciliani che avevano eletto re Tancredi, figlio naturale di Ruggero di Puglia, e nel frattempo dovette sconfiggere le opposizioni in Germania, dove Enrico il Leone cercava di riconquistare gli antichi domini. A questo scopo catturò il re d'Inghilterra Riccardo Cuordileone, di ritorno dalla crociata e alleato del suo avversario, liberandolo solo dietro un pesante riscatto. Raggiunto un favorevole accordo con Enrico il Leone, poté organizzare una nuova spedizione in Sicilia, dove intanto era morto Tancredi, e farsi incoronare re nel 1195. Affidò allora il regno di Germania al fratello Filippo di Svevia e fece incoronare il figlio Federico re di Sicilia (1196). Mentre stava progettando una nuova crociata e la costituzione di un ampio impero mediterraneo, morì prematuramente. Politico abile e spregiudicato Enrico VI fu anche uomo di grande cultura e poeta.

ENRICO THERE NOR HOHENSTAUFEN ( nijmegen 1165 Mexican 1197). King nor Germany (1190-1197), emperor ( from the 1191) both king nor Sicily ( from the 1195). Son nor Pillowcase Barbaric both nor Beatrice nor Burgh , she was associate all'impero in the 1186 both bride nello same yr Assiduity d'Altavilla , heir of the throne nor Sicily. In the 1190, to the quietus of the father both of the father-in-law , himself lie-in heir of the sovereign nor Germany , Burgh , Italy both Sicily. Enthroned emperor , facing the barony sicilian what they had elected king Tancredi , son unlearn nor Rust nor Puglia , both meanwhile in where upset the opposition un Germany , in where Enrico does the stop at Leo forage nor reconquer the ancients sovereignty. AT this view collar does the stop at king d'Inghilterra Wealthy Cuordileone , return dalla crusade both allied of the one's opponent liberandolo sole in the rear a stodgy redeem. Work out a large settlement with Enrico does the stop at Leo poté structure a youthful shipment un Sicily , in where by that time she was died Tancredi , both plough enthroned king in the 1195. Affidò thereat does the stop at reign nor Germany to the brother Philippine nor Svevia both made enthroned does the stop at son Pillowcase king nor Sicily (1196). Whilst stava project a youthful crusade both how much is the admission to the makeup nor a wide empire Mediterranean morì prematurely. Political adroit both spregiudicato Enrico THERE she was too stiff nor mighty culture both poet.

Casale Gaedera è citato - 1195 - Caggeggi
Fino al 1845 era costituito da due distinti villaggi, Soccorso Gaedera (o Gaedara) e Soccorso Cròpani, unificati per decreto di Ferdinando II di Borbone e assegnati al Comune di Gualtieri Sicaminò. II nome del casale Gaedera è citato in un documento del 1195 col quale Enrico VI di Svevia conferma al monastero cistercense di Roccamatore (Tremestieri) la donazione dei tre feudi di Campo Caggeggi e Paparcudi fatta da Bartolomeo de Lucy, conte di Paternò.

Until 1845 it was constituted from two distinguished villages, Aid Gaedera (or Gaedara) and Cròpani Aid, unifica you for decree of Ferdinand II of Borbone and assigns you to the Common one of Gualtieri Sicaminò. II name of the Gaedera country house is cited in a document of 1195 with which Enrico YOU of Svevia confirmation to the monastero cistercense of Roccamatore (Tremestieri) the donation of the three feudi of Field Caggeggi and Paparcudi made from Bartolomeo de Lucy, conte of Paternò.

Caggegi - Kaggegi - Kaggeg





barrel, keg, big, flashy car


To date it appears that S21 in Britain marks "Anglo - Saxon" and so on the Continent in Italy (perhaps a legacy of the Visigoth and Lombard Germanic invaders), north to Saxony and Friesland and the home of the Angles. Norway is about 66% S21 positive; and the surrogate for the Anglo - Saxon homeland (Friesland) is about 75% - S21 positive.



Originally settled by the Celtic tribe of the Atrebates, it later became a Roman garrison town known as Atrebatum.

It is located in the former Dutch and French province of Artois. For many centuries, Arras was on the border between France and the Low Countries and it frequently changed hands before firmly becoming French in the late 17th century, the fortifications upgraded by Vauban helping keep it in French hands. The town was closely linked to the trade of Flanders and later became an important centre for sugar beet farming and processing as well as a prosperous market centre.

The Union of Atrecht (the Dutch name for Arras) was signed here in January 1579 by the Catholic principalities of the Low Countries that remained loyal to king Philip II of Habsburg; it provoked the declaration of the Union of Utrecht later the same month.
The Town Square, Arras. February, 1919
The Town Square, Arras. February, 1919

During the First World War, Arras was near the front and a long series of battles fought nearby are known as the Battle of Arras in which a series of medieval tunnels beneath the city, unknown to the Germans, became a decisive factor in the French holding the city. The city, however, was heavily damaged and had to be rebuilt after the war. In the Second World War the town was occupied by the Germans and 240 suspected French Resistance members were executed in the Arras citadel.

Hamburg 1800
Hamburg 1800

The city takes its name from the first permanent building on the site, a castle ordered to be built by Emperor Charlemagne in 808 AD. The castle was built on some rocky ground in a marsh between the Alster and the Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion. The castle was named Hammaburg, where "burg" means "castle".

The "Hamma" element remains uncertain. Old High German includes both a hamma, "angle" and a hamme, "pastureland." The angle might refer to a spit of land or to the curvature of a river. However, the language spoken might not have been Old High German, as Low Saxon was spoken there later. Other theories are that the castle was named for a surrounding Hamma forest, or for the village of Hamm, later incorporated into the city. Hamm as a place name occurs a number of times in Germany, but its meaning is equally uncertain. It could be related to "heim" and Hamburg could have been placed in the territory of the ancient Chamavi. However, a derivation of "home city" is perhaps too direct, as the city was named after the castle. Another theory is that Hamburg comes from ham which is Old Saxon for shore.

In 834 Hamburg was designated the seat of a bishopric, whose first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. In 845 a fleet of 600 Viking ships came up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen.
seal of 1245

In 983, the town was destroyed by king Mstivoj of the Obodrites. In 1030, the city was burned down by King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland. After further raids in 1066 and 1072 the bishop permanently moved to Bremen. Hamburg had several great fires, notably in 1284 and 1842.

The charter in 1189 by Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. This and Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities.

In 1529 the city embraced Lutheranism, and Hamburg subsequently received Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France. Hamburg was at times under Danish sovereignty while remaining part of the Holy Roman Empire as an Imperial Free City.

Briefly annexed by Napoleon I (1810-14), Hamburg suffered severely during his last campaign in Germany. The city was besieged for over a year by Allied forces (mostly Russian, Swedish and German). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. During the first half of the 19th century a patron goddess with Hamburg's Latin name Hammonia emerged, mostly in romantic and poetic references, and although she has no mythology to call her own, Hammonia became the symbol of the city's spirit during this time.

Hamburg experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's third-largest port.
Hamburg's central promenade Jungfernstieg on River Alster in 1900
Hamburg's central promenade Jungfernstieg on River Alster in 1900

With Albert Ballin as its director the Hamburg-America Line became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company at the turn of the century, and Hamburg was also home to shipping companies to South America, Africa, India and East Asia. Hamburg became a cosmopolitan metropolis based on worldwide trade. Hamburg was the port for most Germans and Eastern Europeans to leave for the New World and became home to trading communities from all over the world (like a small Chinatown in Altona, Hamburg).

After World War I Germany lost her colonies and Hamburg lost many of its trade routes. In 1938 the city boundaries were extended with the Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz (Greater Hamburg Act) to incorporate Wandsbek, Harburg, Wilhelmsburg and Altona. The city counts 1.7 million inhabitants.

During World War II Hamburg suffered a series of devastating air raids which killed 42,000 German civilians (Bombing of Hamburg in World War II). Through this, and the new zoning guidelines of the 1960s, the inner city lost much of its architectural past.

The Iron Curtain—only 50 kilometres east of Hamburg—separated the city from most of its hinterland and further reduced Hamburg's global trade. On February 16, 1962 a severe storm caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people.

After German reunification in 1990, and the accession of some Eastern European and Baltic States into the EU in 2004, Hamburg Harbour and Hamburg have ambitions for regaining their positions as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre. Hamburg 2020

Haplogroup R1b1c9a is a subclade of the preceding group. Present indications are that it arrived in England with either the Saxons or Normans.

My haplogroup is U5a1a
My haplogroup is U5a1a, and the literature explained that a haplogroup "identifies deep ancestral ethnic and geographic origins on your maternal line." They included a map showing where the haplogroups are found and how they are connected with each other. My haplogroup origin is found only in Sweden.

Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype)
R1b1c1 European Australians
R1b1c2 Basque
R1b1c3 European
R1b1c4 Basque/Andalusian
R1b1c5 European
R1b1c6 Iberian
R1b1c7 NW Ireland (Ui Neill)
R1b1c8 Italy
R1b1c9 Northern Germanic (S21)
R1b1c10 Southern Germanic, Swiss

R1b1c9a and R1b1c9b are promising to be useful as they may further subdivide north germanics into germans, danes, swedes and norwegians.


R1b1c6 is as you can see from the above list, Iberian in origin. It is supposedly well represented in southern england. But it is also well represented in coastal europe so we can't assume they came here directly after the ice age. Dating it has been difficult but it seems to be around 3500 BP. So, are we looking at people in the bronze age migrating to Britain? Could they be indicative of the Belgae or Atrebates of the iron age? Maybe they came as Frisians and Merowingians during the dark ages? There are usually lots of possibilities.

Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype)

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #2

The haplotype below is the most common haplotype in the YHRD database, and it may be considered classic (or "Western") AMH. It occurs all over Europe, and the paternal ancestors of someone with this haplotype could easily have come from anywhere. When that person has British roots, Occam's Razor is generally applied and a "deep ancestry" among the Celtic-speaking, pre-Roman population of Britain is assumed. Much of this population has been in Western Europe since the Paleolithic, and is thought to have migrated to the British Isles from either Spain or France. Sure enough, of the top twenty frequencies listed below, half occur in samples of Iberian origin. The highest frequency occurs among the Basques, who have been shown to be nearly identical, in Y chromosome terms, to predominantly Celtic populations like the Irish and the Welsh. Southern Ireland itself exhibits the sixth highest frequency of this haplotype. Yet a sample from Saxony comes in second, and one from the western Netherlands comes in fourth. Two Italian samples also exhibit frequencies among the top twenty. Since the Atlantic Modal Haplotype occurs in relatively high proportions, not just in Iberia and the British Isles, but also in areas like Germany and The Netherlands, we cannot rule out an Anglo-Saxon origin for any "Border Reiver" descendant with this haplotype. It is not the simplest assumption we can make, but it is a reasonable assumption. Nor, with the high frequencies in Iberia and Italy, can we rule out an origin among Roman settlers. The best assumption that we can make about the ancestry of "Border Reiver" descendants with this haplotype is that it is most likely a mixture of several possible origins. This and related R1b haplotypes originated in Europe during the Paleolithic. During the Ice Age, the carriers of R1b wintered in the Pyrenees. When the Ice Age ended, these carriers radiated across Western Europe. They became the pre-Roman population of Spain, France, the British Isles, and large portions of the Rhineland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Northern Italy. Although the Celtic language itself has roots in Asia, the indigenous people of Western Europe became its primary speakers. They comprised the largest proportion of those people we know from history as "Celtic", and remain so today. Traditional areas of Celtic settlement are Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, Brittany, and Galicia in Northern Spain. Celtic culture is epitomized archaeologically by the La Tene settlement, which existed near Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland during the Iron Age. The Paleolithic population of Europe also became one of the earliest components of the Spanish, Italian and German peoples, and were among the first speakers of the the Romance languages and the Teutonic languages, even though the Indo-European source of these languages, too, lay elsewhere. The Basques, who are perhaps the purest "Paleolithic" population in Europe, do not speak a Celtic language and are not Celts, even though they are ancestrally related to those who are. R1b does not mean "Celtic". And, even though R1b is found everywhere in Western Europe, no country in Western Europe is entirely R1b, or has been so for a very long time.


There is no shortage of theories that seek to explain the origins of the Basques, western Europe's mystery people. They range from the incredulous (that Basques are the survivors the lost people of Atlantis, the fabled land that sunk into the sea) the mythical (Basques are descendants of Aitor, the first Basque man) the pre-historic (Basques descended from the Stone Age, proponents pointing to Basque words for tools that all incorporate stone) the expansive (purported links with other distant languages) to the probable (Basques are descendants of the Iberians, people who once inhabited Spain).

Outside the city of Gernika, one can find the caves of Santimamine which contains the remnants of a culture 20,000 years ago. Other archeological finds suggest that the present Basque homeland contained human communities as long as 70,000 years ago. What is unknown, however, is if they were ancestors of the Basques. The debate is whether the Basque populace and culture developed--in situ--there in the Pyrenees or if they migrated into their present homeland. Those skeptical of the tens of thousands of years of a Basque presence place their arrival sometime between 5,000 and 3,000 B.C. Nonetheless, even these conservative estimates place the Basques in western Europe long before the migrations of the second millennium B.C. that established the ethnic composition of modern Europe. Therefore, what is certain is that the Basques are the oldest indigenous people of western Europe.


Where are they from? Who are the Basques? Both are questions that many Basques are asked. Neither is easy to answer but there has been no shortage of efforts.

Philippe Veyrin, a French student of Basque origins, grouped explanations into three broad categories: theological, the metaphysical and scientific theories. Leading writers from the theological age--predominately in the late 18th, and early 19th centuries--put forth claims that Basque was the original language spoken prior to the linguistic fragmentation resulting from the Tower of Babel. (The biblical story in which God thwarts the human effort to build a high tower to reach the heavens. To disrupt the project, God imposed a multitude of languages on the workers so that they could not communicate with one another). One attempt to substantiate this claim was that of the Abbe Diharce de Bidassouet who based his claim on some inventive etymological work. Gipuzkoa (one of the seven provinces) represented Gu-iz-puzk-ko-ak, or literally those whose language was broken. Meanwhile, Manuel de Larramendi, who wrote the first Basque grammar book, was not as assertive and instead assigned Basque a place among the seventy-five languages that followed the collapse of the Tower of Babel. Finally, another commentator, Abbe Dominique Lahetjuzan claimed that Basque proved the story of Genesis. Apparantely the originality of Basque verified the divinity of Genesis. Unfortunately, these and other explanations offered little solid evidence for their claims and instead relied on questionable etymologies and assumptions. But for a time, these claims were taken seriously. The Gipuzkoan priest Erroa petitioned the Chapter of the Cathedral of Pamplona, which after months of deliberations, accepted his theory that Basque was the language spoken in the Garden of Eden.

Metaphysical explanations were initiated in the nineteenth century by the German scientist Humboldt. He asserted that Basques descended from the Iberians, the original inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula. Not everyone embraced his conclusions, and Humboldt's research triggered a rush to link the Basques with other peoples--from the Finns and Hungarians, to the ancient Egyptians and the Native Americans, with the Celts, Phoenicians among others, thrown in for good measure. Rodney Gallop, writing in 1930, preferred the theory offered by Bosch Gimpera. Gimpera places the Basques in linear succession to the Paleolithic inhabitants of the Pyrenees, basing his claim on the physical resemblance of from 25-40% of the modern Basque population. Basques were influenced by the Iberians, and most likely borrowed from their language, but they were distinct. It is a plausible hypothesis, but as Gallop concedes it is not conclusive. Gallop concluded that the Basques are the oldest people in Europe. There is little or no mention of the Basques until the 12th century, Gallop tells us, so before that time, "like an honest women they had no history." As Roger Collins concludes, "the evidence just does not exist, be it anthropological, archaeological or linguistic, on which it would be possible to state where the Basques come from, and when and how they established themselves in the western Pyrenees."

It is no better when trying to answer the second question: what is a Basque? In former times, it was a more simple matter because it was a people and a land. The Basques defined themselves as Euskaldunak--literally those who speak Basque--and their homeland was Euskal Herria--land of the Basques or Basque speakers. As it turned out, their homeland was situated at a busy thoroughfare on the Iberian peninsula. The Romans "visited," followed by numerous other peoples and armies, including the Goths, Franks, and Moors. Their homeland was finally claimed by the emerging nation-states of Spain and France. Most Basques are aware that there are seven provinces that make up what is today considered the Basque country. They could point out that four are in Spain and three in France. This legacy dates from the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. Representatives from Spain and France gathered to decide upon a mutual boundary between their two nations. The final division, which split the province of Nafarroa into two parts, was presumably based upon "natural frontiers" that divide Spain and France. At the negotiations in Madrid in 1651, it was proclaimed that "the Pyrennes Mountains, which divided the Spanish from the Gauls [French] since antiquity, constitute the division of these two kingdoms." It is not known what the delegates considered to be antiquity because the Basques of course were there before they were.

With the integration of the Basque Country into the states of Spain and France, many atzerritarrak or "outsiders" found their way to the land of the Basques. Therefore when Sabino de Arana-Goiri, the founder of modern Basque nationalism at the end of the 19th century set about his task, this question of definition loomed paramount. His definition included discussions of both ethnic and cultural aspects (Arana made an effort to learn the Basque language), but he stressed racial purity. In this simple definition the number of Basque surnames emerged as paramount: the more Basque last names the more Basque one was considered. The definition of Basqueness has been transformed today. From the early accent on racial purity, the modern emphasis is on the Basque language and culture.

Other researchers have pointed to physical attributes to differentiate the Basques from their neighbors. There are claims of a distinctive skull structure and defining hair and eye colors. Much as also been made of blood comparisons. Basques have a high percentage of type O blood, in particular a high incidence of Rh negative, but this alone cannot firmly establish a distinct people and it remains problematical to define Basques in physical terms.

The plot thickens when the focus shifts to a cultural definition of Basques. Basque nationalists and others have come full circle to conclude that language remains the only satisfactory tool to address questions of Basque identity. This however is controversial because it excludes a sizable group of people who consider themselves Basque even though they do not speak the language. There are also non-Basques who have recently learned the language and now consider themselves Basque. Thus being Basque becomes a state of mind. Do you see why it is not easy to respond to this question?

But analysis of the language has revealed some certainties. Do not be confused by the loan words from neighboring languages because Euskara is nothing like Spanish or French because it remains the only non-Indo-European language in western Europe. It precedes these latter-day derivatives of Latin, the language of the Romans, by--at least--3,000 years. A form of Euskara or Basque, therefore, has been in western Europe longer than any other current language. That much is certain, but the question remains as to where it came from.

It should come as no surprise then that the origin of the word "Basque" is also uncertain. Somehow the Euskaldunak assumed the names of Basque, in France, and Vascos in Spain. Roman writers made mention of a particular tribe whose neighbors did not understand their language. The first reference came a generation before the birth of Christ and the Romans referred to the people that inhabited this corner of Europe by various names, including Vascones. Gallop posits that the Latin root "vasc" is probably a corruption of the Basque "eusk". He concludes that from this evolved the modern terms Basque, Vasco and Gascon. But it is still uncertain as to whether this was actually the Basque people. In the twelfth century, a more certain reference labeled them the Bascli. We ended up with the French version of the term because English made extensive use of French vocabulary.

So do you know anything more now after reading this article? Unfortunately, there are very few certainties when discussing the Basques. They remain Europe's "mystery people" because the origin of the people and their language remains lost to us. While there remain more questions than answers, what is certain is that the Basques and Euskara are western Europe's oldest indigenous people and language.

Genetic history

Sami genetic history has been of great interest because of their large genetic distance to other European populations including their closest neighbours. It is mainly the north Sami and east Sami that have been investigated. There is considerable genetic variation between the different Sami groups but they all share a common ancestry. Female mtDNA especially has been investigated, but also Y chromosomes and classical autosomal markers. The research indicates that 95.6% of Saami mtDNA originated in the Iberia refugia while only 4.4% is of Siberian-Asiatic origin (Tambets 2004). A genetic link has been established between the Sami and the Berbers of North Africa going back 9000 years (Achilli 2005).

Sami Y chromosomes indicate that 29.8% originated in the Iberia refugia and 58.2% originated in Eastern Europe (Tambets 2004). The autosomal classic markers shows that the Sami have no close relatives in any population including their closest linguistic relatives but are in general more closely related to Europeans than people of other continents. The closest of the distant relatives are Finnish people, but this is probably due to more recent immigration of Finnish people into the Sami areas, and the assimilation of the Sami population into the mainstream population in today's Finland (Meinila 2001).

The Sami are no more closely related to the Siberian and Mongol populations than other European populations (Niskanen 2002), in contrast to the historically held view that the Sami are of Siberian-Asian origin. The genetic distances between the Sami and the rest of the world are due to founder effects and genetic drift resulting from their small and isolated population.


Sami mtDNA

The Sami people mtDNA haplogroup distribution strongly deviate from the distribution of other European countries including their closest neightbours. The European haplogroup Velda - V and Ursula - U5b1 stands for 89.2% of the total haplogroups among the Sami people, while minor Siberian linages like D5 and Z occur at only 4.4% (Tambets 2004). These major haplogroups occur at a low rate in European populations except for haplogroup U5b1 among Finns in Finland's Oulu Province (22.4%) due to Sami admixture (Meinilä 2001) and haplogroup V among the Basque people in Iberian Peninsula (12.4%) and Mari people in Volga-Ural (10.2%). Further almost 50% of haplogroup U5b1 haplotypes are unique for the Sami people population and do not occur elsewhere, while most of the haplogroup V haplotypes is also seen among other European populations. Its believed on the basis of correlation analysis that haplogroup V and U5b1 migrated togheter with male haplogroup I1a (Rootsi 2004) and on the basis of variance and haplotype analysis its believed they migrated from western Europe. The age of haplogroup V and U5b1 among the Sami based on variance analysis is believed to be between 5 800 to 11 000 years old (Delghandi 1998, Tambets 2004, Ingman 2006), while the Siberian lineages Z and D5 is probably not older than 2 000 years representing a much later minor migration wave from the east (Ingman 2006).

Sami Autosomal

The autosomal classic markers shows that the Sami have no close relatives in any population but are in general more closely related to Europeans than people of other continents (Cavalli-Sforza 1994, Niskanen 2002). The closest of the distant relatives are Finnish people, but this is probably due to more recent immigration of Finnish people into the Sami areas, and the assimilation of the Sami population into the mainstream population in today's Finland (Meinila 2001).

The Sami are not more closely related to Siberian and Mongol populations than other European populations (Niskanen 2002), in contrast to the historically held view that the Sami are of Siberian-Asiatic origin. It has been speculated that the small founding population overtime was slowly intermixed and that any East-Asian genes, being limited to the initial founder group, were increasing overwealmed from surrounding populations becoming gradually nearly the same as their various European neighbours. However the relative young age of the eastern female hg Z and D5 and male hg N3 among the Sami do not support this idea. The genetic distances between the Sami and the rest of the world are due to adaption, founder effects and genetic drift resulting from their small and isolated population.


Although they are genetically distinctive in some ways, the Basques are still very typically west European in terms of their Mt-DNA and Y-DNA sequences, and in terms of some other genetic loci. These same sequences are widespread throughout the western half of Europe, especially along the western fringe of the continent. The Saami people of northern Scandinavia show an especially high abundance of a Mt-DNA type found at 11% amongst Basques.[1][19][20]

It is thought that the Basque Country and neighbouring regions served as a refuge for paleolithic humans during the last major glaciation when environments further north were too cold and dry for continuous habitation. When climate warmed into the present interglacial, populations would have rapidly spread north along the west European coast. Genetically, in terms of Y-chromosomes and Mt-DNA, inhabitants of Britian and Ireland closely related to the Basques,[21][2] reflecting their common origin in this refugial area. Basques, along with Irish, show the highest frequency of the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup R1b in Western Europe; some 90-95% of Basque men have this haplogroup. The rest is mainly I and a minimal presence of E3b.[21] The Y-chromosome and MtDNA relationship between Basques and people of Ireland and Wales is even stronger than to neighboring areas of Spain, where ethnically Spanish people now live in close proximity to the Basques, although this genetic relationship is also very strong among Basques and other Spaniards. In fact, as Stephen Oppenheimer has stated in The Origins of the British (2006), although Basques have been more isolated than other Iberians, they are a population representative of south western Europe. As to the genetic relationship among Basques, Iberians and Britons, he also states (pages 375 and 378):

By far the majority of male gene types in the derive from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal), ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales and 93% Castlerea, Ireland. On average only 30% of gene types in England derive from north-west Europe. Even without dating the earlier waves of north-west European immigration, this invalidates the Anglo-Saxon wipeout theory... ...75-95% of British and Irelanders (genetic) matches derive from Iberia...Ireland, coastal Wales, and central and west-coast Scotland are almost entirely made up from Iberian founders, while the rest of the non-English parts of the Britain and Ireland have similarly high rates. England has rather lower rates of Iberian types with marked heterogeneity, but no English sample has less than 58% of Iberian samples...

Before the development of modern Genetics based on DNA sequencing, Basques were noted as having the highest global apportion of Rh- blood type (35% phenotypically, 60% genetically). Additionally Basques also have virtually no B blood type (nor the related AB group). These differences are thought to reflect their long history of isolation, along with times when the population size of the Basques was small, allowing gene frequencies to drift over time. The history of isolation reflected in gene frequencies has presumably been key to the Basque people retaining their distinctive language, while more recently arrived Indo-European languages swamped other indigenous languages that were previously spoken in western Europe. In fact, in accordance with other genetic studies, a recent genetic piece of research from 2007 claims: "The Spanish and Basque groups are the furthest away from other continental groups, which is consistent with the suggestions that the Iberian peninsula holds the most ancient West European genetic ancestry" [3].

u5 & R1b

Saami - Arctic Peoples - Indigenous Peoples at the Arctic Council

The Saami Council representing Saami people in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia

"We, Saami are one people, united in our own culture,
language and history, living in areas which,
since time immemorial and up to
historical times, we alone inhabited and utilized".

Saami Political Program 1986 /
Saami Council statements

The Saami Council is a voluntary Saami organization (a non–governmental organization), with Saami member organizations in Finland, Russia, Norway and Sweden. Since its foundation in 1956 the Saami Council has actively dealt with Saami policy tasks. For this reason the Saami Council is one of the indigenous peoples’ organizations which have existed longest.

The primary aim of the Saami Council is the promotion of Saami rights and interests in the four countries where the Saami are living, to consolidate the feeling of affinity among the Saami people, to attain recognition for the Saami as a nation and to maintain the economic, social and cultural rights of the Saami in the legislation of the four states. (Norway, Sweden, Russia and Finland). This objective can be achieved through agreements between these states and the bodies representing the Saami people, the Saami parliaments.

Saami Council renders opinions and makes proposals on questions concerning Saami people’s rights, language and culture and especially on issues concerning Saami in different countries.


The Basques, the most invaded indigenous group on the planet, are fortunate enough to have gained true self-determination as a separatist state.

On February 15 1990, by an absolute majority of 38 votes, the Basque Parliament proclaimed:

"The Basque People have the right to self-determination.

This right resides in the lawful authority of its citizens to take decisions, freely and democratically, on their political, economic, social and cultural status, either by providing themselves with their own political framework or by sharing their sovereignty, totally or in part, with other peoples".

The Basque Country has had its own Government and autonomous Parliament since the arrival of democracy in Spain in the late nineteen seventies. As indigenous people, they're much more fortunate in this regard than other aboriginal peoples. I wonder when this democracy will arrive in Australia and America?

Inhabiting the Pyrenees for at least four thousand years, the Basques have survived ongoing invasion and colonisation by moving to the hills where it is difficult to attack and easy to defend, fighting ferocious and carefully chosen battles. They have been invaded by the Indo-Europeans, the Celts, the Romans, the Franks, the Visigoths and Islamic peoples. Eventually their territory was divided between France and Spain during the middle ages.

Now there are seven autonomous Basque territories, governed by bodies of law known as Fueros. These work well because they have the indigenous quality of flexibility and the ability to evolve with changes in society and the environment.

The Basque Homeland is called Euzkadi, and its language is Euskara, which survives from not only pre-Roman times, but pre-Celtic times as well. About 3 million Basques live in the Basque Homelands.

M269 - R1b1c*: Europe, predominantly western
M269 - R1b1c*: Europe, predominantly western

SRY2627 - R1b1c6: Iberia; SW England and Ireland
S26 - R1b1c9a: concentrated in England


Finnish Saami: 2.9%
Norwegian Saami: 0.7%


EuropeanRussia(N = 215): 7.91%
Scandinavia(N = 645): 6.82%


Finland/Estonia(N = 202): 1.49%
Orkney(N = 152): 1.32%
U5 - Geographic Patterns of mtDNA Diversity in Europe

Saami: 5.29%
Karelia: 1.81%
Estonia: 1.79%
Albania: 1.43%
Finland: 1.39%
Volga-Finnic: 1.18%
Iceland: 1.13%
Basques: 1.04%
Norway: 1.00%

Geographic Patterns of mtDNA Diversity in Europe


2.3% - SC - Scotland
2.0% - FI - Finland
1.9% - CP - center Portugal
1.5% - SG - south Germany
1.4% - NG - north Germany
1.2% - NO - Norway
1.0% - SP - south Portugal
0.5% - FR - France
0.5% - NP - north Portugal
0.4% - EN - England
R1b (Haplotype 15)
R1b (Haplotype 15) - This is the most common in Western

Europe, occurring most frequently among the Basques of Spain

and the Celtic-speaking aborigines of the British Isles, such

as the Irish, the Welsh and possibly the Picts. Scientists

believe that those who belong to this group are descended

from the original Paleolithic population of Europe, whose

members took refuge from the Ice Age in the caves of the

Pyrenees. The most common - or the "modal" - pattern in this

group is called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype.

Percentage of Population that are Haplogroup R1b:

Spanish Basque – 89.9%
French Basque – 86.4%
Catalan – 79.2%
British – 72%
Dutch – 70.4%
Andalausian -65.5%
Italian – 62.0%
French – 52.2%
German – 50.0%
Czech and Slovakian – 35.6%
Calabrian – 32.4%
Greek – 27.6%
Sardinian – 22.1%
Albanian – 17.6%
Polish – 16.4%
Syrian – 15.0%
Georgian – 14.3%
Hungarian – 13.3%
Udmurt – 11.6%
Croatian – 10.3%
Macedonian - 10.0%
Saami – 8.3%
Turkish – 6.6%
Lebanese – 6.4%
Ukrainian – 2.0%

Nordic Viking blood

Chapter 37 : Risorgimento - The Resurrection of Italy

Viking descendants invade Sicily. Roger Guiscard, one of the Normans from France - who were themselves Vikings from Scandinavia - lands on the coast of Sicily. Guiscard launched a race war against the non-White Muslim occupiers of Sicily in 1061. With the aid of many of his countrymen, he succeeded in driving the Muslims out of Sicily in 1090, and set up a kingdom on that island, with himself as leader. The infusion of new Nordic Viking blood onto the island was soon taken up into that region's population - so that to this day it is still possible to find blue eyed blonds amongst the Sicilian population, of whom a significant proportion are of mixed race.


Giovanni John Raciti DNA Y-DNA and mtdna Haplogroups:

The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype - Haplogroup R1b


Clan Ursula - Haplogroup U5


Giovanni John Raciti DNA Y-DNA and mtdna Haplogroups:

The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype - Haplogroup R1b


Clan Ursula - Haplogroup U5


Norman/Germanic - Viking heritage - Language and Culture in Sicily.
Norman/Germanic - Viking heritage - Language and Culture in Sicily.

Norman/Germanic - Viking heritage - Language and Culture in Sicily.

My cousin through marriage David Neilson assumed my surname was biological ‘Raciti’. I am biological in fact a Caggegi. He told me that I needed to wait in line before I could consider my Norman/Germanic - Viking heritage.

He believes he is of Danish heritage (through his surname - Neilson). He has brown hair and brown eyes. I personally don't see it at all. My daughter Racheal has blonde hair and blue eyes - and is most likely to be of that area.

I have found the original form of my biological name to be of a 'North Sea Germanic language' of Norse Origin: 'Keggeg', specifically from the Ingaevones, Jastorf and Langobardic cultures that migrated into North Italy in the 6th and 7th centuries.

History tells us that there were significant Lombard (with their Gallo-Italic idiom) settlements in Randazzo, Sicily.

There was a Lombard Community (the last to come, with the Normans) around the church San Martino in Randazzo.

The Langobardi tribe could have been biologically very similar to The Cimbri (Danes) and The Frisii tribes.

The one thing I do know is that The Lombards through The Jastorf culture - were in locations in Sweden - were I find other 'Keggeg's.

Descendant of The Saami, reindeer hunters of Scandinavia and The Cro-Magnon of southern France.
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Old 04-07-2007, 02:07 AM
johnraciti johnraciti is offline vbmenu_register("postmenu_36990", true);
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Lombards and Saxons

# Longobardus — Lombards
# Saxneat — Saxons

Lombards and Saxons have the same dna haplotype.

The Lombards, Saxons, and Angles were all Germanic peoples. The Lombards are thought to have originated on an island in the Baltic Sea. In 100 B.C. they moved into the area now known as Germany, and by A.D. 500 they lived in present-day Austria. The Lombards invaded and controlled much of Italy from 568 to the mid-700s. Today the northern region of Italy is known as Lombardy, named for the Lombards.

The Saxons were a warrior tribe who lived in Jutland (a peninsula comprising a portion of present-day Denmark and northwestern Germany) during the second century A.D. They staged a series of raids along the coastal areas of the North Sea, occupying the northwestern coast of present-day France by 400. Fifty years later they reached England, then part of the waning Roman Empire, which crumbled later in the century.
Descendant of The Saami, reindeer hunters of Scandinavia and The Cro-Magnon of southern France.
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Old 04-07-2007, 02:45 AM
johnraciti johnraciti is offline vbmenu_register("postmenu_36991", true);
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North Italian Kingdom Of The Lombards Ad 568 - 773

AD 568 - 773

The Lombards, or Langobards, originated in and above northern Silesia/Prussia (now western Poland) as part of the Suebi (Baltic Sea). They migrated south in the sixth century, filling the gap left on the north bank of the Danube in Hungary by the collapse of the Huns. After being used as a mercenary army by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the Lombards began to invade northern Italy after his death, diminishing the influence of the Byzantine Exarchate at Ravenna.

I'm certain that The Saxons and Langobards came from the same Hamburg area, Schleswig-Holstein region.
Descendant of The Saami, reindeer hunters of Scandinavia and The Cro-Magnon of southern France.
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Old 04-07-2007, 03:17 AM
johnraciti johnraciti is offline vbmenu_register("postmenu_36992", true);
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The Lombards are Saxons by blood.

The Lombards are Saxons by blood.

This would explain would I have many Anglo-Saxon exact matches. These Lombards from North Germany (Hamburg) went into Milan 6th century then into Sicily during the 11th century.

Invaders huh...
Descendant of The Saami, reindeer hunters of Scandinavia and The Cro-Magnon of southern France.

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Norman Roman Templar Genes - Haplogroup R-M269 - R1b1a1a2 - DYS464X: 15c-15c-17c-17g

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