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Sunday, May 25, 2008

By the 15th century the Anglo-Normans had merged with the Anglo-Saxons to form the English.

By the 15th century the Anglo-Normans had merged with the Anglo-Saxons to form the English.

Blair: Scottish, McCarthy: Irish, Shelton: English; Anglo-Saxons - In the 5th century, when England had only recently been deserted by the Roman legions, the Anglo-Saxons established the independent kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex, Kent, Essex, Sussex and East Anglia, which were collectively known as the Heptarchy., Brown: English, Scottish, Hardin: English, Cline: German, Irish, Jewish, Scottish - Westphalia, which means western plain, is the contemporary Bundesland, or state, of Nordrhein-Westfalen. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Saxons inhabited the territories in north central Germany. Westphalia was a part of the old duchy of Saxony, which included most of the land between the Rhine and the Elbe between the 9th and 12th centuries. In the 9th century, the Frankish Emperor Charlemagne incorporated Saxony and the other German duchies into the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne's conquest brought temporary unity to the duchies, but the collapse of the Carolingian Empire loosened these bonds of common order. Tribal consciousness and local particularism fought all centralizing influences until the late 19th century., Clements: English-Alt, English, French - Welsh Surnames, Mates: French - Champagne is a former province of France, located in the northeast part of the country on the west bank of the River Meuse. Its main city is Troyes, and it is one of France's celebrated wine regions. In ancient times, the area was ruled by the Counts of Champagne., Webb: English - Anglo Norman, Cooley: Irish, Franklin: English, James: English-Alt, English.

Cambro-Norman:

Anglo-Normans also led excursions into Wales from England and built multiple fortifications as it was one of William's ambitions to subdue the Welsh, however he was not entirely successful. Afterwards, however, the border area known as the Marches was set up and English influence increased steadily. Encouraged by the invasion, monks (usually from France or Normandy) such as the Cistercian Order also set up monasteries throughout Wales. By the 1400s a large number of Welsh gentry, including Owain Glynd┼Ár, had Norman ancestry. The majority of knights which invaded Ireland were also from or based in Wales.

Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. Some historians suggest that the term is to be preferred to Anglo-Norman for the Normans who invaded Ireland after 1170 — many of whom originated in Wales.

The most prominent example is Richard "Strongbow" de Clare, whose lands in Wales centred around Pembroke and who led the Norman invasion of Ireland.

In addition to such Cambro-Norman lords, some of Ireland's most prominent families, including Walsh, Joyce and Griffith, were indigenous Welsh families who came with the Norman invasion. Other indigenous Welsh surnames such as Taaffe which came at this time became very important families within the Pale community.

The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily, were the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to the Mezzogiorno in the first half of the eleventh century. Normans first arrived in Italy as pilgrims probably either on their way or returning from Jerusalem or visiting the shrine at Monte Gargano in the late tenth and early eleventh century. In 1096, the Normans of Bohemond of Taranto joined the First Crusade. These Italians set up the principality of Antioch in the Levant. The entire Mediterranean world was touched by the unique Italo-Norman civilisation. In 1130, under Roger II, they created a lasting polity like William the Conqueror's in England: the Kingdom of Sicily, encompassing the whole of their conquests in the peninsula and the island.

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